Tommy, p.84
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       Tommy, p.84

           Richard Holmes
 

  bayonet fighting 382, 384

  British casualties 7, 40, 41, 43, 45–7, 76, 90

  the cavalry at High Wood 440–42

  commemoration of 71

  compared with Passchendaele 60

  creeping barrage 407

  first appearance of the tank 267, 427, 429. 433

  Flers-Courcelette 44–5

  German insistence on regaining

  captured ground 42

  Haig overrules Rawlinson 41

  medical services 467, 470, 472–3, 477, 481

  mining 458

  Montagu-Stuart-Wortley sacked 231

  no need for wire in 268–9

  the old battlefield 228–9

  padres 511–12

  plan of attack 40, 188

  Thiepval Memorial 14

  trench system 249–50, 251, 255, 259, 260

  Somme Times, The 608

  Somme front 258, 270, 349, 450, 502, 527, 542, 549, 590

  Somme River 16, 17, 21, 39, 49, 447

  Somme sector 18, 313, 526, 627

  sound-ranging 64, 184, 452

  South Africa 13, 76, 108, 190

  South African troops: casualties in France 13–14

  South America 206

  Southampton 4, 163, 579

  souvenirs 546–7

  Spanish Netherlands 19

  Spears, Brig. Gen. Sir Edward 51–2, 190, 319

  Special Service Party 419

  Spicer, Maj. Lancelot 83, 171, 482, 614–15

  Spiers, Edward 119

  spirituality 503–27

  St-Eloi 216, 304, 350, 457, 465

  Mont 259, 350

  St-Gilles church, Epagnette 20

  St-Mihiel 18

  St-Mihiel salient 1

  St-Omer 23, 38, 39, 64, 193, 468, 511

  St-Quentin, battle of (1557) 21

  Stamfordham, Lord 267

  Stanford, 2nd Lt H. M. 23, 328, 413

  Stanhope, Lt Col Lord 171, 190, 205, 222, 230–33. 241–2, 419, 550, 556, 587

  Stanhope Forbes, 2nd Lt W. A. 629

  Stanton, RSM 83

  Stanway, Capt. 356, 464

  Starrett, Corporal David 238, 553–4

  Steenbeek Stream 57, 62, 63

  ‘Stellenbosched’ 214, 218

  Stewart, Col. 141

  Stirling Castle 16

  Stirling Wood 15–16

  Stokes, Lt Stephen 550

  Stokes, Wilfred 369–70

  Stones, L/Sgt Willie 569 Stoughton barracks, Guildford 4, 132

  Strachan, Lt Harcus 443–4

  Strachan, Hew: First World War xxii

  Streets, Sgt Will 45–6

  strikes 96, 108, 347, 617

  Studdert Kennedy, Rev. Geoffrey (‘Woodbine Willie’) 511, 518

  The Unutterable Beauty 518

  Stuff Redoubt (Thiepval) 529 submarine warfare 49, 54, 69

  Suez canal 84

  Sugden, Amy 158, 368

  Sugden, Sgt Bill xxvi-xxvii, 158–9, 357, 368, 563–4

  Surbiton Villas 271

  surrender 547–51

  surveying 453

  Sutherland, Maj. 574

  Swinford, Sapper (later Pte) George 91–2

  Swinton, Maj. Gen. Sir Ernest: Twenty Years After 24

  Swiss border 33, 246

  swords 366–7, 436, 438, 444, 445, 448

  syphilis 101, 483

  T-shells 423

  Talbot, Lt Gilbert 525

  Talbot, Revd. Neville 522, 524–5

  Talbot, Sgt 352

  Talbot House, Poperinghe (‘Toe H’) 525

  Talbot Kelly, 2nd Lt R. B. 148, 410, 417, 525, 539, 577–8

  Tangiers 112, 113

  tanks 44, 64, 69, 210, 267, 375, 427–34

  A7V 430

  Mark IV 428–9, 430, 434

  Mark V 70, 431, 434

  supply 431

  ‘whippet’ light 70, 375, 431

  Tanner, Revd Victor 520

  Taplow Court, Buckinghamshire 626

  Tarawa 14

  Tasmania 195

  Tawney, Sgt Richard Henry 48, 145

  Taylor, A. J. P. xxiii, 209, 628

  The First World War: An Illustrated History xxi

  Taylor, Pte George 523

  Teed, Pte 353

  telegraph 452

  telephone communications 218, 226, 227, 303, 395, 398, 400, 410, 415,

  Tennant, Gunner Norman 133–4, 612

  Tennyson, Alfred, Lord 77

  Ternon, Trevor 195

  Terraine, John 210

  Douglas Haig: The Educated Soldier xxii

  Territorial Force 28, 75, 76, 79, 79–82, 87, 88, 89, 103, 107, 129–34, 135–8, l40, 174, 198, 368

  Territorial Force Nursing Services 481

  Territorial Year Book, The 130

  Thermit bombs 424–5

  Thesiger, Maj. Gen. George 212

  Thiepval 40, 526

  Thiepval Memorial, Somme 14, 628

  Thirsk, Sgt 411

  Thomas, Lt F.G. S. 622

  Thomas, Corporal Reginald (John) 596

  Thompson, Flora: Lark Rise to Candleford 100

  Thornton-Smith, Capt A. D. 57, 59

  Thorout 54

  Tickler’s jam (‘pozzy’) 317–18, 319–20

  Tillett, Ben 508

  Tilques 350

  Tilton, Sister May 481

  Times the, 35, 138–41, 200, 311, 605

  Toe H 525

  Todhunter, B. E. 161

  Tolkien, LtJ. R. R. 533

  ‘Tommy Atkins’ xv-xvi

  Tompkins, Lt 126

  Tompson, Capt. Reginald 22–3, 192, 212, 240–41, 587–8, 615

  Touvent Farm, Somme 40

  Tower Hamlets 271

  Tower Hamlets ridge 15

  Trades Union Congress 508

  Training and Employment of Divisions, The (Pamphlet SS 135) 367–8

  Transloy-Bapaume road 283

  transport lines 335

  Travers, Tim xxii

  Treffry, 2nd Lt 473–4

  Tregaskis, Lt Arthur 46

  Tregaskis, Lt Leonard 46

  trench fever 469

  trench journals 605–10

  Trench Supply Department 370, 387

  trench warfare 245–66

  aid posts 264–5

  and blockhouses 261

  communication trenches 252–5, 275, 305, 308–9, 388

  conditions 247–g

  digging trenches 305–7

  dugouts 257–61

  fatigues 295

  fire trenches 247, 250, 252

  firestep 250–51

  food 314–26

  funk holes 257, 306

  German snipers 295–6

  ‘going over the top’ 251, 275

  Grecian key design 251–2

  increasing use of the grenade 380–81, 385

  infantrymen 274

  informative signs 256–7

  latrines 262–3, 277> 284– 288

  laying out a trench system 249–50

  line-holding 275, 276–7, 278, 283

  listening posts 252

  lying trenches 246

  pattern of rotation 274, 275–6, 279, 280

  precedence for 245–6

  raiding 311–14

  rats 286–7

  reserve trenches 295

  reversing trenches 251

  revetting of trench sides 249

  scale and duration 246

  sentry duty 301–3

  the smell of the line 285–6, 290

  social community 531–2

  stone-built sangars 249

  supervision trenches 252

  trench names 253, 256

  trench periscopes 295

  trench stores 265, 275, 284, 303

  trench-mortar dugouts 264

  watches 292–3

  Trench Warfare Department 387

  Trinity College, Cambridge 357

  Trones Wood 281

  truces 544, 547

  Trumpeter,
The (song) 147–8

  Tuchman, Barbara xvii, 96

  Tudor, Brig. Gen. Hugh ‘Owen’ 64, 233

  Tunnel Trench, British attack on (1917) 537

  tunnelling companies 311

  Turks 194, 448

  Turp, Farrier Sgt 445

  Tyndale-Biscoe, Harold 143

  Tyndale-Biscoe, Lt Julian 142–3, 203, 263, 354–5, 415

  Tyne Cot memorial 59, 628, 629

  Tyne Electrical Engineers 133

  Ulster 120, 152

  Ulster Tower 154

  Ulster Unionists 135

  Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) 153–4

  West Belfast Regiment 154

  Ulstermen 102, 153–4, L55 577

  underclass 97–8

  Underhill, 2nd Lt Edward 247, 259, 260–61, 271, 331, 528–9, 542, 604

  unemployment 108, 620, 630

  Union forces (American Civil War) 246

  United States of America

  and the 1918

  German offensive 277

  enters the war 54, 65, 68–9

  Meuse-Argonne battle 71

  United States Army 163, 376

  University of Leeds xxiii

  Ushant, battle of (1794) 114

  Vailly-sur-Aisne 451

  Valenciennes 21

  Valois 20

  Vauban Marshal Sebastien le Prestre de 21, 194

  Vaughan, Lt Edwin Campion 61–2, 331, 360, 433, 542, 546, 553, 578–9, 581

  Vaux 24

  venereal disease 117, 483–4, 596

  Verdun 18, 24, 542

  battle of (1916) 18, 35, 39, 42, 43, 48, 49.52

  Vermelles 298

  Versailles, Treaty of (1919) xxiii

  Victoria, Queen 105, 113

  Victory Medal 630

  Vietnam War (1961–70) xxi

  Villers-Bretonneux 68, 430

  Villers-Guislain 256

  Vimy Ridge 16, 36, 312–13, 350

  battle of (1917) 52–3, 269

  Vimy Sector 180, 372, 421

  violence 102

  within the Army 555–6

  Voller, Pte H. W. 606

  voluntary recruiting 89–90

  Volunteer Decoration 126

  volunteers 90, 126, 128, 131, 134, 138, 153, 310–11, 027

  Voormezeele 353, 463

  Vosges, the 18, 52, 249

  Wade, Gunner Aubrey 63–4, 303, 414, 596

  Walker, Pte Johnny 298

  Walker, Revd Michael Stanhope 512

  Walkey, Pte 603

  Wambergen, Lt Meyer Zu 542

  War Cabinet 54, 67, 215, 225

  war literature xvii-xxiv

  War Office xv, 82, 106, 121, 135, 142, 144, 177, 231, 506

  ammunition supply 35

  Committee on Shell Shock (1922) 330, 485

  and mining 457

  and New Armies 139

  and territorials 136, 137, 140

  and use of gas 419

  and weapon inventions 387

  Wareham, Capt. 582

  Warley Barracks 156

  Wars of the Roses (1453–85) 626

  Waterloo, battle of (1815) 104, 120, 182, 365, 396

  Waterloo station, London 132

  Watney, Lt Col. Frank 79

  Watson, W. H. L. 311

  Watson-Smythe, Lt ‘Teddy’ 355–6

  Watter, Lt Gen. von 429

  Watts, Capt. A. R. E. 496

  Watts, Maj. Gen. Herbert 6, 207

  Watts, Sgt 573

  Wavell, Field Marshal Lord 120

  weapons see under individual types

  Webber, Lt Henry 46

  Weetman, Capt. W. L. 37–8

  Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of 21, 104, 107–8, 118, 119–20, 182

  Wellington Barracks 129

  Welsh Division New Year Souvenir, The 608

  Welsh National Eisteddfod 503

  Welsh National Executive Committee 149, 150

  Welsh nationalism 150

  Welton, RQMS 356

  West, Pte B. 297

  Western Command Gas School 421

  Western Desert 207, 622

  Western Front

  architecture 19–20

  attack/defensive strategies 34–5

  bayonet fighting 382

  British C-in-Cs xix

  casualty clearing stations 478

  casualty statistics 13, 14

  cavalry 375

  Churchill’s comments xx

  corps commanders 210

  the costliest theatre for British troops 14

  created by the war’s opening campaign 25

  decorations 584

  Haig’s insistence on its primacy 38

  horses 163

  importance of 29–30

  length of 15

  Liddell Hart’s comments xx line of field fortifications 32–3, 246

  maps 453

  motivation 489

  mutinies 347

  post-war appearance 23–4

  routine line-holding 275

  scale and duration of trench warfare 246

  toll on British generals 212–13

  and US entry into the war 65

  veterans xxiii

  victims of indirect fire 213

  Westerners school of strategic policy xix

  Westhoek Ridge (Ypres) 261

  Westmann, Stephen 103, 406

  Westminster Abbey, London: Tomb of the Unknown Warrior 630

  Whatley, Driver J. 80–81

  Whatley, Pte Richard 80, 81

  When Cannon are Roaring (English Civil War song) 245

  Whitehead, Lt Col. North 141–2

  Whitmore, Capt. 326

  Whittington Barracks, Lichfield 89

  whiz-bangs 411, 497–8

  Whizz-Bang, The 608

  Wigram, Col. Clive 44

  Wilkie, Lt 361–2

  Will, 2nd LtJ. G. 301

  Williams, Pte Erskine 266, 300

  Williams, Pte William 383

  Williamson, Henry 15, 23, 256, 296, 300, 346, 497, 553

  Love and the Loveless 346

  Wills, Lieutenant 3–4

  Wilson, Field Marshal Sir Henry 26, 67, 123, 215

  Wilson, Trevor xxii, 42, 441

  Wimberley, Maj. Gen. Douglas 560

  Wimereux (Boulogne) 480

  Winchester Farm 63

  Windmill Hill (Zonnebeke) 383

  Windy Docks 450

  Wing, Maj. Gen. Frederick 212

  Wingate, Capt. Sandy 214

  Winnington-Ingram, A. F., bishop of London 506, 511, 513

  Winter, Denis 180

  Winter, J. M. 149, 626

  Winterbotham, 2nd Lt Cyril (‘C. W. W.’): The Wooden Cross 606

  Wipers Times, The 22, 320, 606, 607

  wireless 226–7, 371, 452

  Wolf, Leon: In Flanders Fields xxi

  Wood, Corporal W. B. 348

  Woodroffe, Lt Neville 361

  Woodruff, Dan 99

  Woodruff, William 98–9

  Woodville, Richard Caton 438

  Woolwich, London 117, 120, 142, 157

  Wootton, Pte Herbert 114–15

  Workman, Lt 351

  Worrell, Pte Ted 437

  Wray, Capt. John 153

  Wright, Capt. Theodore 451

  Wulverghem 317

  Wurttemburg 543

  Wyn Griffith, Capt. Llewelyn 151–2, 217–18, 370, 544

  Wytschaete 465, 494

  Yates, Capt. 598

  Yeomanry 121, 123, 126–8, 206, 208,

  YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) 341, 343, 600

  York Cemetery 72

  Yorktown, battle of (1781) 397

  Young, Brigham 497

  Ypres (Belgium) 15, 21, 22, 33, 54, 194, 310, 349, 426, 470, 494, 574

  Ypres, first battle of (1914) 9, 15, 33, 279, 36l, 366, 401, 438, 471, 499, 540–41, 615, 629

  Ypres, second battle of (1915) 35, 36, 172, 198, 200, 214, 216, 418, 419, 497, 596

  Ypres, third battle of (1
917 ‘Passchendaele’) xxi, 54–64, 76, 89, 152, 164–5, l78, 18l, l89, 208, 210, 213, 267, 274, 292, 327, 393, 409, 412–13, 416, 417, 433, 479, 526–7 533, 573, 577

  appalling weather 56–7, 59

  British plan 54

  capture of Messines Ridge 55

  French army 30

  gas, use of 424

  German dugouts 260–61

  GHQ/army headquarters tensions 56

  Jacob’s successful attack 233

  and Kiggell 190

  level of British morale 60–61

  maps 454

  medical services 478, 481

  prisoners 541, 551–2

  and Rawlinson 188–9

  Ypres salient 15, 16, 54, 81, 216, 240, 271, 321, 383, 384, 457, 463, 481, 494, 522, 528

  Yser River 271

  Zeebrugge 49, 208

  Zeppelin bombing 372, 384

  Zillebeke 573

  Zonnebeke, battle of (1917) 81, 82

  P. S.

  Ideas, interviews & features…

  ABOUT THE AUTHOR

  RICHARD HOLMES was one of Britain’s most distinguished and eminent military historians and broadcasters. For many years Professor of Military and Security Studies at Cranfield University and the Royal Military College of Science, he was the author of many books including the best-selling and widely acclaimed Redcoat: The British Soldier in the Age of Horse and Musket; Sahib: The British Soldier In India 1750-1914; Marlborough: England’s Fragile Genius; Wellington: The Iron Duke and most recently, Soldiers: Army Lives and Loyalties from Redcoats to Dusty Warriors. His other books include The Western Front and Dusty Warriors. He was general editor of the Oxford Companion to Military History and taught military history at Sandhurst for many years. As well as his work as an academic and writer, Richard Holmes joined the Territorial Army in 1964, and served for over 35 years, retiring as a brigadier and Britain’s most senior reservist. He was also Colonel of the Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment from 1999 until 2007. Famous for his BBC series such as War Walks, In the Footsteps of Churchill and Wellington, Richard Holmes died suddenly in April 2011 from pneumonia. He had been suffering from non-Hodgkins’ Lymphoma.

  Interview with Richard Holmes by Patrick Bishop

  Q. You have written more than a dozen books on military subjects. What is it that keeps drawing you back?

  A. I’ve been a military historian almost all my working life, interweaving an academic career with thirty-six years in the Territorial Army, and veering into full-time soldiering for three years in the 1980s. Military history is so vast a subject that I am always drawn back to look at aspects that seem to me to be worth re-examination. As time has gone on I have become less interested in what we might call ‘arrows on maps’ operational military history, and more and more concerned with what armies are rather than what they do. Tommy is the second volume in a trilogy concerned with the social history of the British army at three different times in its life. Redcoat was the first, and I am currently working on Sahib, a book about the British soldier in India, which will be the third.

 
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