Marlborough, p.74
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       Marlborough, p.74

           Richard Holmes
 

  in Spanish Netherlands campaign (1708), 371–4

  depression over loss of Ghent and Bruges, 372, 375–7

  and French strategy in Flanders, 393–4

  and siege of Lille, 394–9, 401–2

  plans for battle against French before Lille, 395–6

  offers generous terms at fall of Lille, 403–4

  rebukes Stair for disorderly conduct of troops, 403

  takes Ghent, 404–5

  strain and overwork, 407–8

  as delegate in 1709 peace negotiations, 410, 420–1

  requests appointment as captain general for life, 413, 415, 436–7

  commands in campaign of 1709, 415–18

  supports Macartney after conviction for rape, 415–16

  Tory hostility to, 415

  and battle of Malplaquet (1709), 423–5, 429–30

  concern over Malplaquet casualties, 434

  and peace negotiations (1710), 435

  commands in campaign of 1710, 436, 446, 450–1

  political opposition to, 436, 442–3, 445, 457–8

  defamed in Mrs Manley’s New Atlantis, 437

  supports Sarah against Anne, 437

  justifies perquisites and rewards, 438–9

  financial astuteness, 440–1

  support for Godolphin on dismissal, 444

  learns of Sarah’s difficult relations with Anne, 449–50

  meets Anne on return (1710), 449

  ill-health, 451

  returns to France, March 1711, 451

  suspicion of mail interception, 451

  relations with Prince of Anhalt, 453

  acts against Villars (1711), 455

  takes Bouchain, 457

  investigated by commissioners of public accounts and condemned, 460–1, 463

  and peace terms of Treaty of Utrecht, 460, 462

  dismissal and retirement, 461–2

  reputation attacked, 463

  travels to continent (1712–13), 463–6

  as Godolphin’s pall bearer, 464

  in Hanover to support Elector’s succession to British throne, 467–9

  and death of daughter Elizabeth, 468, 471

  returns home from continent (1714), 469–70

  George I reinstates as captain general, 470

  suffers strokes, 471–2

  amusements in declining years, 473

  and daughters’ differences with Sarah, 474

  death and burial in Westminster Abbey, 474–6

  heirs and successors, 476

  reinterred at Blenheim Palace, 477

  military accomplishments and practice, 478–80

  popularity with soldiers, 480–1

  supposed infidelities, 481

  Marlborough, Sarah, Duchess of (née Jennings):

  and Blenheim Palace project, 4, 300–1, 321, 351, 472–3, 477

  Marlborough’s love for, 4, 7–8

  close relations with Queen Anne, 7, 103–7, 110, 141, 165, 176–7, 181, 190, 237

  Maynwaring’s relations with, 7, 354

  as keeper of privy purse, 13, 450

  portrait, 13

  deteriorating relations with and alienation from Anne, 23, 105, 238, 299, 301, 304, 329, 351, 353–4, 365, 407–8, 414, 436, 449

  promotes Abigail Hill’s interests, 23, 190–1

  requests favours from Anne, 28

  and political antipathies, 34, 36, 233, 238–9, 298

  on Marlborough’s lineage, 43

  and Arabella Churchill’s affair with James II, 48

  background, 83

  courtship and marriage, 83–4, 86–8

  character and appearance, 84–6, 105, 482

  relations with mother, 84

  marriage relations, 85–6, 329, 481–2

  in Low Countries, 92

  pregnancies and children, 92–3, 96, 232, 237

  opposes persecution of Covenanters, 94

  on sinking of Gloucester, 98

  in Holywell House, 100

  ambitions, 102–3

  meets Anne, 103

  correspondence with husband, 108, 223, 236, 252, 268, 277, 279, 280–1, 308, 311, 316, 320, 328, 377, 390–1

  and religious differences, 109

  and conspiracy against James II, 142

  escapes from house arrest threat, 154–5

  on accession of William and Mary, 157

  accused of rapaciousness, 159

  family ambitions, 159

  differences with Villiers camp, 162–3

  on differences between Mary II and Anne, 163, 177

  and Anne’s parliamentary grant, 164

  accepts pension from Anne, 165

  called ‘Mrs Freeman’ by Anne, 165

  and husband’s disgrace by William, 176–7

  and death of son Charles, 179

  and husband’s imprisonment in Tower, 179–80

  and ostracism of Anne in Bath, 180–1

  maintains hostility to William, 186

  dislikes Hedges, 206

  suspicions on Earl of Peterborough, 209

  and Marlborough’s absences on campaign, 222

  sulks, 223

  and Marlborough’s dukedom, 232

  affected by death of son John (Blandford), 235–7

  marriage breakdown (1704), 237, 256–8

  menopause, 237, 257

  suspects husband of adultery, 257

  Whiggery, 257, 328, 482

  and Marlborough’s victory at Donauwörth, 275

  Marlborough writes to on Blenheim victory, 297–8

  advises against accepting imperial princedom, 302

  and aid for Earl of Essex, 327

  and Marlborough’s Ramillies victory, 347

  on Anne’s relations with Abigail Masham, 354

  and Marlborough’s siege of Lille, 397

  and Marlborough’s attack on Ghent, 404

  and building of Marlborough House, 408

  and death of Prince George, 409

  and peace negotiations (1709), 410

  and Villars’ intention to fight, 421

  and battle of Malplaquet, 432, 434

  final meeting with Anne, 436, 442

  and political hostility to Marlborough, 436

  defamed in Mrs Manley’s New Atlantis, 437

  pursues Cadogan for money, 440

  corresponds with Anne after breach, 445

  Anne insists on dismissal, 448–50

  daughters’ relationships with, 448–9, 481

  pension arrangements, 450

  and Marlborough’s ill-health in France, 451–2

  and Cadogan’s investment of money abroad, 464

  on Godolphin, 464

  joins husband on continent (1713), 465–6

  and husband’s health decline and death, 472, 474–5

  criticises Sunderland’s second marriage, 473

  makes money in South Sea Bubble, 473

  quarrels with Craggs, 473–4

  rejects suitors in widowhood, 475

  will, 476

  writings, 476–7

  death and burial, 477

  An Account of the Conduct of the Dowager Duchess of Marlborough from her first coming to Court, 105, 142

  Marlborough, Wiltshire:

  parliamentary representation, 31–2

  Marsin, Marshal Ferdinand Marcin, comte de:

  and Marlborough’ threat on Moselle, 260

  holds position at Dillingen, 269

  Tallard aims to join, 278

  at battle of Blenheim, 282, 289, 293–4

  joins Villeroi on Rhine, 305, 331–2

  mortally wounded, 350

  Mary II (Stuart), Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland:

  height, 13

  accession, 15, 156

  death and succession, 26, 185–6

  birth, 47

  marriage, 52, 92

  reproaches Catherine Sedley, 87

  differences and breach with sister Anne, 103, 163–4, 176–8, 180

  letter to
Frances Apsley, 104

  and sister Anne’s commitment to Anglicanism, 140

  correspondence with sister Anne, 141

  Elizabeth Villiers insults, 162

  marriage relations, 163

  rules during William’s absence in Ireland, 168

  and Marlborough’s expedition to Ireland, 169

  on disgrace of Marlborough, 176–7

  excludes Halifax and Shrewsbury from Privy Council, 180

  Mary of Modena, Queen of James II:

  marriage, 78

  Frances Jennings serves, 83

  affection for Marlboroughs, 88

  travels to England, 99

  and birth of James Francis Edward Stuart, 137, 141

  Anne hates, 141

  Anne claims change of heart towards, 166

  Mary Stuart, Princess (William of Orange’s mother), 67

  Masham, Abigail, Lady (née Hill):

  advancement, 23

  marriage, 23, 304, 354

  replaces Sarah Marlborough as Anne’s intimate, 105, 304, 354, 409, 414, 442, 445

  in Duke of Gloucester’s court, 190

  as Sarah’s personal maid, 190–1

  and displacement of Godolphin, 208

  relations with Harley, 354–5, 364, 412, 438

  Sarah’s resentment of, 407, 409, 414, 436

  Marlborough requests removal from court, 415

  Masham, Brigadier Samuel, 1st Baron:

  marriage, 23, 304, 354

  title, 29

  promoted, 446

  Matignon, Marshal Charles Auguste Goyon, marquis de, 384, 390

  Maubeuge, 74, 454

  Maurice, Prince, 41

  May, Baptist, 26, 63

  Maynwaring, Arthur, 7, 354, 407, 413, 438, 444, 457, 464

  Meath, Edward Brabazon, 4th Earl of, 159

  Medina, Sir Solomon de, 219, 460, 463

  Mediterranean:

  William’s strategy in, 182–3

  Allies win control after attack on Toulon, 360

  Medway, river:

  Dutch raid (1677), 61

  Mehaigne, river, 312, 333–5, 342, 345

  Meldert, 347

  Mellenburg, 466

  Menin, 378, 395

  Meredith, Brigadier General Thomas, 24, 275, 445

  Mérode-Westerloo, Brigadier Jean Philippe Eugène, comte de:

  on Blenheim campaign, 8, 287–8, 291, 293–4

  on Lines of Brabant, 240, 242

  and attempt on Antwerp, 245

  and siege of Ingolstadt, 279

  on battle of Ramillies, 338

  changes sides, 338

  Meuse, river, 254

  Mews, Peter, Bishop of Winchester, 124–5, 131, 355

  Middleton, Charles, 2nd Earl of, 186–7

  Miklau, General, 431

  military formations:

  line fighting, 283–7

  militias:

  decline under James II, 132

  Millner, Sergeant John, 313, 374, 477

  Mindelheim, principality of, 303, 463, 466

  Minorca:

  ceded to Britain, 458

  Mitford, Nancy, 67

  Mohun, Brigadier Charles, 5th Baron, 19, 65, 355

  Molesworth, Captain Richard, 3rd Viscount, 342–4, 402

  Molyneux, William, 4th Viscount, 468

  monarchy:

  conflicts over nature of, 45

  Monmouth, James Scott, Duke of:

  at Sedgemoor, 17, 123–5

  supporters hanged, 18, 52, 54

  Regiment, 52

  commands Life Guards troop, 54

  at siege of Maastricht, 70, 75–6

  presents Marlborough to Charles II, 77

  commands British brigade in France, 79

  Marlborough reports to on casualties, 81

  serves in Charles II’s council, 91

  defeats Covenanters at Bothwell Bridge, 94

  exiled in Holland, 94

  rebellion, 96, 110–18, 120, 132

  captured and executed, 126

  Mons, 173, 421–3, 434

  Montagu, Charles see Halifax, 1st Earl of

  Montagu, John Montagu, 2nd Duke of (earlier Viscount Monthermer):

  marries Mary Churchill, 303

  as chief mourner at Marlborough’s funeral, 475

  complains of Mary’s adultery, 476

  Montagu, Mary, Duchess of (née Churchill; earlier Viscountess Monthermer):

  rebukes Lady Hervey, 23

  birth, 102

  marriage, 303

  Anne disparages, 448

  attends Anne’s funeral, 470

  Sarah quarrels with, 474, 476

  and dying father, 475

  Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, 475

  Montagu, Ralph, 1st Duke of (earlier Earl), 303

  Monthermer see Montagu, Duke of and Duchess of

  Montreuil, 453

  Montrose, James Graham, 3rd Marquis of, 99

  Moore, General Sir John, 185

  Mordaunt, John, Viscount, 207, 272, 280, 344

  Mortimer, Captain Edward, 20

  Moselle, river and valley, 255–6, 258, 260, 308, 312, 330

  Mountcashel, Justin McCarthy, Viscount, 166

  Mowdie, Elizabeth, 87

  Muddey, Private John, 267

  Mulgrave, John Sheffield, 3rd Earl of see Buckingham, 1st Duke of

  Mundelsheim, 266

  Munnocks, Lieutenant Philip, 114

  Murray, Sir George, 6

  Murray, Major General Robert, 344, 371–2, 377

  Nairne, David, 184

  Namier, Sir Lewis, 34

  Namur, 181, 210, 378, 454

  Nangis, Louis Armand de Brichanteau, marquis de, 390

  Nantes, Edict of:

  revoked (1685), 129

  Narborough, Rear Admiral Sir John, 68–9

  Naseby, battle of (1645), 40

  Nassau-Dietz, Johan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange and Friesland, 388, 426, 429–30, 453

  national debt, 441

  Natzmer, Major General Dubislaw von, 287, 376, 382, 385, 387–8, 407

  navy:

  in War of League of Augsburg, 182

  Ne Plus Ultra line, 453–4, 457

  Nebel, river, 281, 283, 287, 291, 293, 478–9

  Neerhespen, 312, 3144

  Neuberg, 278

  New Model Army, 48–9

  Newburgh, Charles Livingstone, 2nd Earl of, 117

  Newcastle, John Holles, Duke of, 298, 304

  Newfoundland, 459

  Newton, Sir Isaac, 14, 189

  Newton Montacute (estate), Wootton Glanville, Dorset, 39

  Nijmegen, 224, 227

  Peace of (1678), 89–91

  Nine Years War (1684–97), 250

  Nithsdale, William Maxwell, 5th Earl of, 178

  Normanby, Marquess of see Buckingham, 1st Duke of

  North America:

  French threat in, 135

  French concessions under Treaty of Utrecht, 459

  Northampton, George Compton, 4th Earl of, 140, 154

  Northumberland, George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of, 62

  Norton St Philip, 118

  Nottingham, Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of:

  and Trelawney’s influence, 33

  and Mary’s recall of Prince George from campaign, 164

  favours campaign in Ireland, 169

  and William’s disgrace of Marlborough, 174

  and Marlborough’s imprisonment in Tower, 179

  and loss of Smyrna convoy, 182

  and troops for Portugal, 208

  and Marlborough’s Low Countries campaign, 229

  Noyelle-en-Falais, General Jacques Louis, comte de, 312

  Noyes, Chaplain Samuel, 8, 275, 294

  Oates, Titus, 91, 178

  O’Brien, Charles, 5th Viscount, 99

  Occasional Conformity Bills:

  (1703), 239, 248

  tacked (1704), 299

  Oerderen, 245

  O’Farrell, Brigadier:

  surrenders
Diest, 75

  Offenburg, 259

  Oglethorpe, Lady Eleanor, 326

  Oglethorpe, James Edward, 119

  Oglethorpe, Lewis, 119

  Oglethorpe, Colonel Theophilus, 116, 117, 119, 122, 123, 125–7, 158

  Onslow, Sir Richard, 148

  Opdam, General see Wassenaer en Obdam, General Jacob

  Orange, Prince of see Nassau-Dietz, Johan Willem Friso

  Orford, Edward Russell, Earl of:

  in Whig junto, 35n; invites William to England, 137

  and Marlborough’s resentment at William’s favouring foreign officers, 174

  friendship with Marlborough, 175

  defeats Tourville at St Vaast-la-Hougue, 179

  in attack on Brest, 183–4

  accused of complicity in Jacobite plot, 187

  as head of Admiralty, 409, 414, 437–8

  forbidden to engage French, 462

  Orkney, Elizabeth Villiers, Countess of, 162, 164, 175

  Orkney, Sir George Hamilton, Earl of:

  elected representative Scottish peer, 20

  as colonel of Royal Fusiliers, 75

  announces Blenheim victory, 294

  admires French behaviour at Blenheim, 296

  and Marlborough’s princely status, 303

  on Dutch opposition to Marlborough’s 1705 plans, 312

  at Lines of Brabant, 314

  at battle of Ramillies, 338, 339–40, 343–5, 347, 430

  in Flanders campaign (1709), 421, 423

  in battle of Malplaquet, 426, 430–1

  on casualties at Malplaquet, 433

  troops in Dunkirk, 469

  Orléans, Princess Henriette-Anne, duchesse d’, 51–2

  Ormonde, James Butler, 2nd Duke of:

  and favours, 24

  in Anne’s circle, 108

  and conspiracy against James II, 136

  as lord lieutenant of Ireland, 234

  heads board acting against Marlborough, 447

  succeeds Marlborough as commander-in-chief, 447, 461

  proposed as viceroy of Ireland, 469

  Orrery, Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of, 24, 70

  Ostend, 242–3, 349, 398–9, 401

  O’Sullivan, Lieutenant, 429

  Oudenarde:

  Marlborough advances on, 348

  Marlborough reinforces, 372–3, 377

  Vendôme proposes march on, 378

  Marlborough enters after battle, 390

  Oudenarde, battle of (1708):

  Marlborough prays before, 139, 374

  Hanoverian cavalry at, 202

  Cadogan at, 217, 379–80

  George I fights at, 261

  prisoners of war, 368

  site and field, 380

  deployment and actions, 382–90

  casualties, 389

  Ouwerkerk (Overkirk), Hendrik van Nassau, Heer van:

  moves against Villeroi, 241–2

  at Lines of Brabant, 259–60, 315, 317, 320

  relations with Marlborough, 259

  driven back to Maastricht, 310–11

  makes diversionary crossing of Mehaigne, 312–13

 
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