Marlborough, p.73
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       Marlborough, p.73

           Richard Holmes
 

  on fighting in line, 283–4

  on Webb at Wynendaele, 401

  on siege of Tournai, 419

  in battle of Malplaquet, 428–9

  on Villars’ capture of Arleux, 454

  on Marlborough’s peevishness, 455

  as governor of Minorca, 458

  on Ormonde, 462

  New System of Military Discipline, 205

  Karolyi, Alexander, 250

  Kassel, 265

  Keegan, John, 1

  Kehl, 90, 240, 249

  Kensington Palace, 163

  Kent, William, 477

  Kerr, Lord Mark, 215

  Kessel, river, 280–1, 283

  Ketch, Jack, 126

  Keynsham, Bristol, 117–18, 120

  Killiecrankie, battle of (1689), 172

  King, Colonel Richard, 217–18

  Kinsale, 169–71

  Kirke, Captain George, 21

  Kirke, Major General Percy:

  as governor of Tangier, 59

  opposes Monmouth, 111, 115–16, 125

  reputation for brutality, 126

  conspires against James II, 136, 150

  refuses religious conversion, 138–9

  and William’s invasion, 150

  arrested and released, 151, 155

  serves on commission for army reform, 159

  campaign in Ireland, 169

  Vaudemont praises, 174

  Kitcher, Thomas, 340, 345

  Klopp, Onno:

  Der Fall des Hauses Stuart, 467

  Kneller, Sir Godfrey, 12, 473

  Koblenz, 249, 256, 258

  La Bassée, 417, 420

  La Bertoche, General, 385

  La Colonie see Colonie

  La Folie Farm, 424, 431

  La Hougue, 396

  battle of (1692), 168, 179, 182

  Lalo, Brigadier Sampson de, 207, 428

  Lamotte, Charles Motte-Houdancourt, comte de, 372, 399–400, 404–5

  land tax:

  and financing of war, 37

  Landau, 250–1, 253, 260, 330

  siege of (1705), 305

  Landen, battle of (1693), 182

  Langston, Colonel Thomas, 136, 148

  Lanier, Major General Sir John, 147–8, 159, 174, 181, 185

  Lanière Wood, 423–4, 429–30

  Lansdowne, George Granville, Baron, 445

  Largillière, Nicholas de, 12

  La Salle, Lieutenant de (duellist), 20

  Latin America:

  trade agreement on, 458

  Lauter, river, 305

  Lawrence, Thomas Edward (‘Lawrence of Arabia’), 480

  Laws (secretary to George Stepney), 218

  League of Augsburg, War of the (King William’s War), 173–4, 181–2

  Leau, 315, 317, 323

  Villeroi besieges, 331–2

  Le Blanc, Intendant of Ypres, 421

  le Brun, Charles, 66

  Lech, river, 280

  Lediard, Thomas, 43, 98, 127

  Leeds, Bridget, Duchess of (Godolphin’s granddaughter), 29

  Leffinghe, 399

  Lely, Sir Peter:

  portraits, 14, 47, 62 Lens, 417–18

  Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor:

  Duke of Berwick serves, 27

  coalition forces against France, 79

  and War of Spanish Succession, 193

  on status of Prince James Francis Edward Stuart, 201

  in Nine Years War, 250

  offers honours and posts to Marlborough, 280, 302–3, 421

  succeeded by Joseph I, 326

  Lessines, 377, 378–9

  Levellers, 39

  Lever, Sir Tresham, 185

  Liège, 229–30, 310, 332

  Life of James II, 128, 157, 165

  Lille:

  siege of (1708), 391–9, 401–2, 408

  falls to Marlborough, 402–4

  garrisons diverted to Hompesch, 455

  restored to France, 459

  ‘Lillibulero’ (song), 143–4

  Limburg:

  captured, 247, 248, 251

  French threaten, 310

  Limerick:

  siege of (1690), 168–9, 171

  Treaty of (1691), 171

  Lincoln, Abraham, 230

  Lionne, Colonel Charles-Hughes, comte de, 366

  Lisle, Alice, 18, 126

  Lives of the Two Illustrious Generals, The (anon.), 42

  Lloyd, Captain David, 153, 166, 183–5

  Lloyd, Captain Thomas, 20

  Locke, John:

  political philosophy, 15

  reforms coinage, 189

  London (ship), 68

  London:

  Whig sympathies, 36

  Trained Bands, 49

  court life in, 55–6

  population and growth, 55–6

  and James II’s army, 134–5

  General Post Office, 223

  London Gazette, 25, 134, 220–1, 316, 324–5, 400, 408, 461

  Londonderry, 166

  Lords, House of:

  composition, 29

  abolished under Commonwealth, 39

  Marlborough attends, 110

  debates peace terms (1711), 460

  approves Treaty of Utrecht, 462

  see also Parliament

  Loseke, Colonel, 385

  Lottum, Lieutenant General Count, 386–7, 393, 426

  Louis XIV, King of France:

  army in Flanders, 4

  appearance and stature, 13

  and Treaty of Utrecht, 15

  expansionist policy, 51, 66, 90, 481

  and Treaty of Dover, 51, 65

  war against Dutch, 52, 65–9, 146

  at siege of Maastricht, 70, 74, 76

  continental coalition against, 79

  orders destruction of Palatinate, 81

  ends Dutch war, 89–90

  correspondence with James Duke of York, 95

  and Anne’s marriage to Prince George, 106

  financial support for James II, 109

  revokes Edict of Nantes, 129

  invades Rhineland (1688), 146

  recognises William as monarch, 188

  and Spanish succession, 192–3, 357

  recognises Prince James Francis Stuart as James II’s heir, 194

  orders to Boufflers, 224

  Bavaria allies with, 239

  German strategy, 250

  strategy in Germany, 250

  orders Villeroi to follow Marlborough into Germany, 260

  and Tallard at Blenheim, 288

  and defeat at Blenheim, 296

  sanctions Allègre’s deputation to The Hague, 318–19

  instructs Villeroi on Ramillies deployment, 333, 338

  and effects of Ramillies defeat, 349

  and Mme de Maintenon, 356

  and Charles XII of Sweden, 358

  and Allied attack on Toulon, 359

  and captured officers, 368

  and campaign of 1708 in Spanish Netherlands, 369

  on importance of Oudenarde, 378

  on Allied threat to Lille, 391

  told of Oudenarde defeat, 392

  court-martials Lamotte for fall of Ghent, 405

  rejects Allied peace terms (1709), 409–11, 420

  appoints Villars commander in Flanders, 412

  and French weakness, 419

  gives permission to Villars to offer battle, 421, 423

  informed of battle of Malplaquet, 430, 433

  resumes peace negotiations after Malplaquet, 435

  see also France

  Louis XV, King of France, 462

  Louis, Prince see Baden, Louis William I

  Louisa Maria Theresa Stuart, Princess, 12

  Louisbourg, Cape Breton Island, 459

  Louvain, 316–17, 349

  Louvière gap, 422–3

  Louvois, François Michel le Tellier, marquis de, 79, 86, 130, 147

  Lovelace, John, 3rd Baron, 147

  Low Countries see Flanders; Spanish N
etherlands; United Provinces

  Ludgershall (constituency), 31

  Lumley, Lieutenant General Henry:

  at the Schellenberg, 272, 275

  in attack on Lines of Brabant, 312–14

  commands cavalry at Ramillies, 338, 339

  discusses troop allocation with Marlborough, 369

  at battle of Oudenarde, 386–7

  Lumley, Henry, Viscount, 431, 477

  Lutzingen, 286–7, 289, 297

  Luxembourg, chevalier de, 399, 432

  Luxembourg, Marshal François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de, 162, 173–4, 182

  Lyme Regis, Dorset:

  in Monmouth rebellion, 111–13

  Lyttelton, Sir Charles, 61

  Maas, river, 225, 229–30

  Maastricht:

  siege of (1673), 70–7

  in Marlborough’s strategy, 229

  Villeroi threatens, 240, 310

  Marlborough reaches, 311

  and Flanders campaign (1708), 375

  Marlborough visits (1712–13), 464–5

  Macartney, Major General George:

  sells regiment, 24

  Toryism, 36

  on Marlborough’s love for Sarah, 88

  as Mohun’s second in duel, 120

  accused of rape and cashiered, 415

  bravery at Malplaquet, 416

  reinstated, 416

  dismissed, 445

  qualities, 477

  Macaulay, Thomas Babington, Baron, 5, 48, 147, 183

  McBane, Private Donald, 72

  Macelligott, Roger, 170

  Machado, Antonio, 460

  Mackay, Hugh, 172, 174, 181, 185

  Madrid, 329–30, 350

  Treaty of (1715), 459

  Maffei, Annibale, Count, 274, 347

  Maggot, Dr, Dean of Winchester, 139

  Maintenon, Françoise d’Aubigné, marquise de, 356, 417

  Mainz, Lothar Franz von Schönborn, Elector-Archbishop of, 262

  Maitland, Major James, 158

  Malplaquet, battle of (1709):

  Macartney at, 416

  site and landscape, 422

  deployment and engagement, 423–32, 479

  casualties, 433–4, 441, 480

  results and effects, 434–6, 438, 441

  Allied guns at, 478

  Manchester, Charles Montagu, 4th Earl of, 140

  Manley, Mary de la Riviere, 87

  The New Atlantis, 83, 436–7

  Mar, John Erskine, 6th or 11th Earl of, 153, 471, 474

  Marchiennes, 457

  Marlborough House, Pall Mall, 408

  Marlborough, Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of, 476

  Marlborough, George Spencer-Churchill, 5th Duke of, 476

  Marlborough, James Ley, 3rd Earl of, 42

  MARLBOROUGH, JOHN CHURCHILL, 1ST DUKE OF:

  reputation and achievements, 1–3, 6

  character and personality, 2–4, 9–11, 101, 254, 482

  nicknamed ‘Corporal John’, 2–3, 478

  avarice, 3, 10, 159, 438–81

  love for wife, 4, 7–8, 85–6

  correspondence and friendship with Godolphin, 6, 101, 175, 208, 224, 253

  as Garter Knight, 11

  portraits, 12

  historical background, 14–16

  finds Delamere not guilty, 18

  on Master of Sinclair’s duel, 21

  and army commissions and careers, 30, 55, 446–8

  and political parties, 34, 36, 298–9, 328, 413, 482

  birth and background, 39, 42–4

  and nature of monarchy, 45

  military reading, 46–7

  schooling, 46

  granted commission as ensign, 48, 55

  and sister Arabella’s affair with James II, 48

  serves James II (Duke of York), 57–8, 70, 92

  early military service, 58–9

  relations and child with Barbara Villiers, 58–9, 61, 63–5, 86

  in Tangier, 59–60

  duel with Herbert, 61

  money gift from Barbara Villiers, 64, 88

  out of favour with Charles II, 69–70

  promoted captain in Lord Admiral’s Regiment, 69–70

  at Maastricht, 70–1, 74–5

  and siege warfare, 70–1, 74

  returns to royal favour after Maastricht, 77

  promoted Lieutenant-Colonel of Duke of York’s Regiment, 79

  campaigns under Turenne, 80–2

  colonelcy, 82

  courtship and marriage, 83–8

  marriage relations, 85–6, 329, 481–2

  as senior liaison officer, 89

  and James Duke of York’s exile in Low Countries, 92–3

  missions to Louis XIV, 92, 109

  and James Duke of York in Scotland, 93–4

  children, 96, 102, 159

  and James II’s fall, 96

  escapes from sinking Gloucester, 97–8

  granted Scottish barony as Churchill of Aymouth, 99

  commands Second Troop of Life Guards, 100

  in Holywell House, 100

  commands Dragoons Regiment, 101–2

  accompanies Prince George from Denmark to England, 107

  correspondence with Sarah, 108, 223, 236, 252, 280–1, 297

  religious convictions, 109, 138–9

  English barony, 110

  as governor of Hudson’s Bay Company, 110, 135

  opposes Monmouth rebellion, 110–11, 113–18

  promoted Major General, 119

  in battle of Segemoor, 124–5, 127–8

  rewarded after Sedgemoor, 126

  conspires against James II, 136, 138, 140, 142, 144

  and birth of Prince James Francis Edward Stuart, 137

  and William’s invasion of England, 138, 149–50

  sits on court martial of army religious dissidents, 140

  promoted Lieutenant General, 149

  maintains relations with James II, 150

  abandons James II, 151–4

  maintains links with Jacobites, 153, 165–6, 184, 191, 392, 467–8, 471, 474

  and accession of William and Mary, 156–7

  earldom, 157

  tensions with William, 157

  remodels army under William, 158–9

  commands forces in Low Countries (1689), 159–61

  colonelcy of Royal Fusiliers, 162

  in council of nine during William’s absence in Ireland, 168

  campaign in Ireland, 169–71

  resents lack of reward after Irish campaign, 171–2

  resentment at William’s favouring foreign officers, 172, 174–5

  given command in Low Countries (1691), 173

  Vaudemont praises, 174

  William dismisses from appointments and court, 175–6

  imprisoned in Tower for conspiracy, 178–80

  released from bail, 181

  accused of betraying 1694 Brest attack (‘Camaret Bay letter’), 183–5

  reconciled with William, 186

  denies complicity in Jacobite plot, 187–8

  appointed governor of Duke of Gloucester and restored to rank and Privy Council, 190

  and succession to Anne, 192, 327

  negotiates 1701 Treaty of Grand Alliance in The Hague, 193

  and Anne’s accession, 194

  as ambassador to United Provinces, 195–6

  appointed to command in Low Countries (1701–2), 195

  awarded Garter, 195

  wears insignia, 196

  responsibilities and powers as coalition commander for Grand Alliance, 200–4, 206–8, 210, 446, 448

  views on weapons and arms, 205–6

  and campaign in Spain, 209–10, 350, 357

  campaign in Low Countries, 210, 225–9

  relations with Cadogan, 211–12

  order of battle, 213

  military strength, 216

  letters written by secretaries and clerks, 218–19

  Farewell allows to pass, 231

&nb
sp; Anne awards dukedom and pension, 232–3

  and death of son John (Blandford), 235–6

  marriage breakdown (1704), 237, 256–8

  supports Occasional Conformity Bill, 239

  commands in 1703 campaign, 240–1

  on need for more men by Dutch and British, 240

  in attempt on Antwerp and Lines of Brabant (1703), 242–8

  battlefield tactics, 242

  differences with Slangenburg, 243, 320, 323–6

  on Prince Louis William of Baden, 251

  on campaign of 1704, 253–4

  favours advance to Danube, 255–6

  colonelcy of 1st Foot Guards, 256

  disapproves of Sarah’s Whiggery, 257, 328

  Sarah accuses of adultery, 257

  will, 257, 440

  march to Danube (1704), 258, 261–2, 264–5

  appearance, 266

  care for sick and wounded, 266, 306–7

  relations with Eugène of Savoy, 266–7, 387

  soft-heartedness, 266–7, 480

  attacks Donauwörth (the Schellenberg), 272–4, 275–6

  in Bavaria with Eugène, 279–80, 283

  Leopold offers principality to, 280, 302–3

  Blenheim tactics and victory, 283–4, 286–7, 289, 291, 293–7

  infantry tactics, 284–5

  returns to England after Blenheim, 299

  and building of Blenheim Palace, 300–2, 351–2, 412, 472–3

  in campaign of 1705, 305, 308–10, 313–14

  joins Eugène at Speyerbach, 305

  introduces pensions scheme for officers’ widows, 307

  headaches (migraine), 308–9, 328, 349, 357, 451, 460, 481

  takes and demolishes Lines of Brabant, 313–15, 323

  nearly killed, 315

  independence in decision-making, 317–18, 323

  and French negotiations in The Hague (1705), 318–20

  attempts to cross Dyle, 320–1

  frustrated by Dutch, 321–2

  dispenses favours and interests, 326–7

  advisory role in government, 327, 330, 364

  requests retirement (1705), 327–8

  stomach trouble and gout, 328

  arranges loan for Joseph I, 329

  in campaign of 1706, 330

  attacks Villeroi (1706), 332–3

  deployment and victory at Ramillies, 332–3, 335–7, 339, 342–3, 346

  escapes death at Ramillies, 342–4

  in pursuit after Ramillies, 347

  at Oudenarde, 348, 372–3, 377, 386–7, 389

  casualties at Ramillies, 348

  advance in Brabant, 349

  and Anne’s all-party government, 351, 353

  and appointment of successor to Peter Mews, 355

  visits Charles XII, 357–8

  opposes Vendôme, 361–2

  urges Anne to dismiss Harley, 363–4

  opposes appointment of Somers to Cabinet, 364

  responsibility for prisoners of war, 366–7

  embarks force against Jacobite expedition to Scotland (1708), 369

  prepares for 1708 campaign in Flanders, 370

 
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