Marlborough, p.70
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       Marlborough, p.70

           Richard Holmes
 

  Toryism, 36

  background and career, 210–12

  as Marlborough’s quartermaster-general, 210–11, 213–14, 217, 220, 368, 391

  peerages and titles, 211–12, 310

  develops Marlborough’s operational plans, 214

  as intelligence chief, 214–16, 260, 283

  and enemy strength, 216–17

  commands cavalry of advance guard, 217, 225

  correspondence with Marlborough, 218

  on command in 1704 campaign, 254

  escapes from Dunkirk privateer, 254

  draws up strategic plans, 256

  on Overkirk’s support for Marlborough, 259

  at the Schellenberg, 271

  at battle of Blenheim, 291

  on campaign of 1705, 309, 317

  as Constable of Tower, 327

  at battle of Ramillies, 333–5, 444

  on Dutch administration of liberated Spanish Netherlands, 361

  captured at siege of Tournai and exchanged, 367–8

  succeeds Stepney as envoy to Southern Netherlands, 368

  Marlborough sends to Flanders to counter French landing in Scotland, 369

  and Flanders campaign (1708), 373, 375–6, 380

  at battle of Oudenarde, 379–84, 385–6

  attends council of war with Marlborough, 391

  supervises battering train in Flanders, 394

  sends instructions to Earle, 398

  escorts Earle, 399

  relieves Webb, 400

  on wretched condition of French deserters, 411

  and casualties at Malplaquet, 434

  wounded in neck at Mons, 434–5

  avarice, 438, 440

  gambling, 439

  money management, 439–40

  goes to relieve Arleux, 454

  and Marlborough’s 1711 attack on Villars, 455–6

  presents papers to commissioners of public accounts, 460

  accompanies Marlborough on 1712 trip to continent, 464

  as envoy in The Hague, 464

  Marlborough transfers money to, 464

  supports succession of George I, 467

  returns to favour and positions with Marlborough, 470–1

  at Marlborough’s funeral, 475

  Calais, 451

  Calcinato, battle of (1706), 347

  Calvert, Charlotte, 62

  Calvo, Count, 71

  Camaret Bay letter (1694), 183–5, 188

  Campbell, James, 30, 431

  Campbell, Colonel John, 29–30

  Campden House, Kensington, 163

  Canche, river, 453

  cannon (artillery):

  deployment, 286, 316, 478

  Cape Breton Island, 459

  Cape St Vincent:

  Anglo-Dutch convoy ambushed by French (1693), 182

  Cardonnel, Adam de:

  papers, 6, 219

  on Dutch army, 200

  as Marlborough’s private secretary, 218–20

  as MP, 219

  on campaign, 220

  on death of Marlborough’s son, 236

  on French defensive measures at Namur, 259

  intelligence service, 260–1

  on Marlborough at Blenheim, 293

  on French prisoners after Blenheim, 296

  pessimism over 1705 campaign, 310

  drafts report for London Gazette on Marlborough’s frustration at Lines of Brabant, 324–5

  and Marlborough’s Flanders campign (1708), 377

  report on Webb’s Wynendaele battle, 400

  dismissed (1710), 445

  paid by Medina, 460, 463

  expelled from Commons, 463

  Carleton, Baron see Boyle, Henry

  Carleton, George, 71–3

  Carlisle, Anne, Countess of (née Capel), 327

  Carlowitz, Peace of (1699), 250

  Carnarvon, Charles Dormer, 2nd Earl of, 27

  Carrickfergus, 167–8

  Casale, 90

  Castle Howard, Yorkshire, 301

  Castlemaine, Countess of see Cleveland, Duchess of

  Castlemaine, Roger Palmer, Earl of, 58, 60, 65

  Catherine of Braganza, Queen of Charles II, 49, 51, 62

  Catherine (yacht), 97

  Catholics:

  under James II, 78, 128–9, 131–2

  in army, 132–4, 140

  see also Jacobites

  Catinat, Marshal Nicholas de, 224

  Chamillart, Michel de, 260–1, 282, 287, 292, 368, 396, 412

  Chanclos, Brigadier Urbain de, 376–9

  Chandler, David:

  on siege warfare, 70

  on Donauwörth, 276

  on Marlborough’s depression at reverses in Flanders, 372

  on Malplaquet, 428

  Marlborough as a Military Commander, 6

  Chard, Somerset, 113–15

  Charleroi, 378, 454

  Charles I, King of Great Britain and Ireland:

  height, 13

  execution, 14, 17, 39

  Charles II, King of Great Britain and Ireland:

  fashion, 13

  mistresses, 13, 57, 62

  and succession to throne, 16, 91

  grants favours, 24–6

  ennoblements, 27

  Whigs support, 35

  popular appeal, 37

  restoration (1660), 44–5

  army, 48–50, 53–4, 78

  marriage to Catherine of Braganza, 49, 51

  sells Dunkirk to France, 48

  Catholic sympathies, 51

  pro-French policy, 51

  and alliance with Dutch against France, 52–3

  life in London, 55–7

  dogs, 56–7

  affair and children with Barbara Cleveland, 57–8, 62, 64

  and French war with Dutch, 67–8, 77

  disfavours Marlborough, 69–70

  asks Parliament for money for Dutch War, 77

  disparages Monmouth, 77

  Marlborough returns to favour after Maastricht, 77

  dissolves Parliament, 91

  and Popish Plot, 91

  assassination attempts on, 92

  seeks financial help from Louis XIV, 92

  Marlborough plays tennis with, 100

  declines Marlborough as Secretary of State, 102

  on Prince George of Denmark, 106

  death, 108–9

  deathbed Catholic reconciliation, 109

  on Marlborough’s indolence, 481

  Charles II, King of Spain, 192

  Charles III, King of Spain (later Holy Roman Emperor):

  and rebellion in Hungary, 250

  as claimant to Spanish throne, 322

  accession in Spain, 348

  campaign in Aragon, 350

  unpopularity in Spanish Netherlands, 361

  and Emperor’s offer of governorship of Spanish Netherlands to Marlborough, 421

  agreement with Dutch (1710), 435

  succeeds as Emperor, 452, 458

  renounces claim to Spanish throne, 458

  Charles XII, King of Sweden, 306, 357–8, 440, 479

  Charles, Archduke of Austria, 192, 209

  Charles Edward Stuart, Prince (‘the Young Pretender’), 15

  Charlotte Mary, Princess:

  birth and death, 99

  Cheldon, marquis de, 421

  Chelmsford, Lord, 176

  Chelsea see Royal Hospitals

  Chémerault, Major General, 372

  Chesterfield, Philip Stanhope, 2nd Earl of, 58

  Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of, 64

  Chesterton, G.K., 3, 152

  Chetwynd, John, 2nd Viscount, 360

  Chiffinch, William, 25–6

  Childs, John, 50, 153, 158

  Cholmley, Sir Hugh, 60

  Chudleigh, Captain, 416

  Church of England:

  proposed reforms, 35

  Tory support for, 37

  and Hanoverian Succession, 192

  and Occasional Conformity, 23
9

  Churchill, Lady Anne (Marlborough’s daughter) see Sunderland, Countess of

  Churchill, Arabella (later Godfrey):

  as mother of Duke of Berwick, 8, 27

  career, 42

  as James II’s mistress, 47–8

  as maid of honour to Duchess of York, 47

  marriage and children, 108, 136, 188, 313

  death and burial, 313–14

  friendship with Henrietta Godolphin (Marlborough), 476

  Churchill, General Charles (Marlborough’s brother):

  career, 42

  in Cockpit circle, 107

  opposes Monmouth’s rebellion, 114

  deserts James II, 151

  leads infantry on march to Danube, 166, 262, 264

  at siege of Cork, 170

  at battle of Blenheim, 291, 296

  challenges Slangenburg, 324

  as Constable of Tower and Governor of Guernsey, 327

  at battle of Ramillies, 338, 444

  enters Brussels, 348

  Marlborough promotes, 446

  Churchill, Charles (Marlborough’s son):

  birth and death, 102, 179

  Churchill, Clementine, Lady (née Hozier), 476

  Churchill, Elizabeth, Lady (Marlborough’s mother), 39, 86

  Churchill, Lady Elizabeth (Marlborough’s daughter) see Bridgewater, Countess of

  Churchill, George (Marlborough’s brother):

  career, 42, 365–6

  in Cockpit circle, 107

  on Fenwick plot, 188

  death and burial in St Paul’s, 314, 366

  differences with Marlborough, 314

  influence on Anne, 365

  Churchill, Harriet (Marlborough’s daughter):

  birth and death, 93

  Churchill, John (Marlborough’s grandfather), 39–41

  Churchill, John (Marlborough’s son) see Blandford, Marquess of

  Churchill, Lady Mary (Marlborough’s daughter) see Montagu, Duchess of

  Churchill, Sarah (née Winston; Marlborough’s grandmother), 40

  Churchill, Sir Winston (Marlborough’s father):

  background and career, 39–44, 46

  knighted, 46

  payment for work in Ireland, 60

  on Marlborough’s disfavour with Charles II, 69

  opposes then accepts Marlborough’s marriage to Sarah, 86, 88

  and Monmouth rebellion, 111, 114

  on Marlborough’s success at Sedgemoor, 127

  values importance of intelligence, 161

  on Eugène of Savoy’s praise for Marlborough, 267

  on parade of captured French colours, 299

  Divi Britannici, 45

  Churchill, Sir Winston Spencer:

  biography of Marlborough, 1, 6

  on Marlborough’s schooling, 46

  on Barbara Villiers and Marlborough, 58, 64

  on Courtin’s letters, 86

  on sinking of Gloucester, 99

  on Marlborough’s part in plot against James II, 138

  on campaign in Ireland, 169

  on William’s rewards to Dutch officers, 172

  dismisses Camaret Bay letter, 184

  on Marlborough’s friendship with Cadogan, 211

  on Dutch interference with Marlborough’s plans, 230

  on campaign of 1703, 241

  on the Schellenberg, 276

  on Marlborough’s toleration of war in Iberian Peninsula, 330

  on report of Wynendaele battle, 400

  on Marlborough’s plan to take Bruges and Ghent, 404

  on Marlborough’s red coat, 453

  on Marlborough’s loyalty to allies, 459

  on British attacks on Marlborough, 463

  on Marlborough’s relations with Jacobites, 467

  on Marlborough’s return from continent (1713), 469

  on Sarah’s retrieving investments in South Sea Bubble, 473

  on Sarah’s quarrels with daughters, 474

  descent from 7th Duke of Marlborough, 476

  Civil War (English, 1641–7), 40–2

  Clare, Charles O’Brien, 5th Viscount, 346–7

  Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of:

  loses position, 26, 51

  political activities, 47

  and standing army, 49

  Barbara Cleveland opposes, 63

  as lord lieutenant of Ireland, 108

  letter from Marlborough on Monmouth rebellion, 119

  on James II’s fears of kidnap, 150

  History of the Great Rebellion, 234

  Clarendon, Frances, Countess of (née Aylesbury), 105, 108

  Clarke, Solomon, 32

  Clausewitz, Carl von, 479

  Clérembault, Lieutenant General Philippe, marquis de, 293, 295

  Clerk, Sir John, of Penicuick, 353

  Cleveland, Barbara Villiers, Duchess of (earlier Countess of Castlemaine):

  supports Marlborough, 5

  portrait, 14

  Bab Mays and, 26

  as Charles II’s mistress, 57–8, 62

  affair and child with Marlborough, 58–9, 61, 63–5, 86

  bigamous marriage with Fielding, 61–3

  children with Charles II, 62, 77

  as lady of bedchamber to Catherine of Braganza, 62

  lovers, 62–3

  created duchess, 63

  death, 63

  money gift to Marlborough, 64, 88

  Marlborough ends relationship, 87

  grave, 219

  Clostermann, Johann Baptiste, 12, 16

  Cockpit, the, London:

  Anne’s circle, 107–8, 110, 136, 140–2, 165, 181, 185

  settled on Anne, 163

  and Marlborough’s disgrace, 176–7

  Prince George moves into, 180

  Coehoorn, Menno van:

  as fortifications specialist, 70

  and siege of Ostend, 219, 242

  on yacht with Marlborough during attack by Farewell, 242–4

  differences with Slangenburg, 246, 318

  death, 255

  Coigny, Robert Jean Antoine de Franquetot, comte de, 259

  coinage:

  reformed, 189–90

  Coke, Thomas, 268

  Colchester, Lord see Rivers, 4th Earl

  Colonie, Colonel François de la:

  escapes from the Schellenberg, 8

  fights duels, 20

  makes night attack against hussars, 220

  actions at the Schellenberg, 269, 272–4

  and Marlborough’s harrowing of Bavaria, 277

  in battle of Ramillies, 334, 336–8, 339, 341–2

  in battle of Malplaquet, 424, 426–7, 430, 432

  Colyear, Lieutenant General Walter, 451

  commissions (army):

  bought and sold, 54–5

  Commons, House of:

  election to, 31–2

  strength and composition, 31, 33

  military members, 36

  rump, 39

  see also Parliament

  Compton, Colonel Sir Francis, 122, 123, 127, 148

  Compton, Henry, Bishop of London:

  invites William to England, 137, 140

  in Cockpit circle, 140

  helps Sarah escape, 154

  Congreve, William, 448, 476

  Coningsby, Thomas, Earl, 475

  Convention Parliament see Parliament

  Conway, Cornet, 21

  Copley, Lionel, 137

  Cork:

  siege and surrender (1690), 169–71

  Cornbury, Edward Hyde, Viscount (later 3rd Earl of Clarendon), 102, 124–5, 148, 178

  Cornwallis, Mary, 105

  Corporation Act (1671), 77

  corsairs:

  North African, 60–1

  Court, Colonel, 21

  Courtin, Honoré, 86–7

  Courtrai, 214, 402

  Covenanters (Scottish), 93–4

  Cowper, William, Baron, 444, 449

  Cox, Captain Sir John, 68

  Coxe, Arc
hdeacon William:

  praises Marlborough, 2

  on birth of Marlborough, 42

  on Marlborough’s service with Duke of York, 59

  on destruction of Palatinate, 81

  and Marlborough – Godolphin correspondence, 101

  praises Blandford, 235

  on Marlborough’s favouring advance to Danube, 255

  on Slangenburg’s intransigence, 320

  on Emperor’s promise to create new principality of Mellenburg, 466

  Coy, Colonel John, 120–1, 158

  Craggs, James, the elder, 444–5, 469, 473

  Craggs, James, junior, 473–4, 476

  Cranstoun, Lieutenant Colonel William, 5th Baron, 316, 343, 433

  Craven, William, Earl of, 135

  Croissy, Louis-François-Henri Colbert, marquis de, 367–8

  Cromwell, Oliver, 43–4

  Cromwell, Richard, 44

  Culloden, battle of (1746), 471

  Cumberland, Duke of see George, Prince of Denmark

  Curragh, Ireland, 134

  Cutts of Gowran, John, Baron (‘Salamander’):

  Irish barony, 28

  nickname, 28

  as ‘Tangerine’, 136

  in assault on Brest, 183, 185

  Marlborough requests insignia from, 196

  at siege of Venlo, 228

  at Wesel strategy meeting, 241

  Cadogan destroys letters in privateer attack, 254

  at Blenheim, 291–2

  on Occasional Conformity Bill, 299

  and Marlborough’s imperial princedom, 303

  qualities, 477

  Dalhousie, William Ramsey, 6th Earl of, 326

  Dalrymple, Sir John see Stair, 1st Earl of

  Danby, Thomas Osborne, 1st Earl of:

  aligns England with Dutch against France, 52

  as Charles II’s chief minister, 78

  achievements, 90

  fall and imprisonment, 91

  invites William to England, 137

  and Anne’s flight from London, 154

  Marlborough quarrels with, 169, 173

  and Marlborough’s imprisonment in Tower, 180

  Danube, river, 249–50, 255, 261, 269, 271, 274, 279, 295

  Danvers, Belle, 436, 442

  Dare, Thomas, 111

  Dartmouth, George Legge, 1st Baron, 10, 59, 82, 95, 97

  Dartmouth, William Legge, 1st Earl of, 145–6, 176, 442, 449–50

  Davenant, Charles, 31

  Davenant, Henry, 217

  Davies, Mrs Christian, 265, 277, 296, 348, 405, 428

  Davies, Richard, 405, 428

  Davis, Mary, 62

  Davison, Captain:

  killed (1689), 161

  Deane, Private John Marshall:

  as source, 8

  on weather on march to Danube, 265

  on action at Donauwörth, 275–6

  at battle of Blenheim, 292

  at Lines of Brabant, 315

  on French artillery pieces, 316

  and crossing of Dyle, 320

  and demolition of Lines of Brabant, 323

  at battle of Ramillies, 334, 345

  and advance in Brabant, 349

 
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