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       Falling Upwards, p.41

           Richard Holmes
 

  30 John Ruskin, quoted in Fort, p.234

  31 Fort, pp.218–19

  32 Ibid., p.225

  33 Ibid.

  34 Glaisher, Travels in the Air, pp.50–5; Astra Castra, pp.385–9

  35 The Times, 10 September 1862, p.10

  36 J.L. Hunt, p.329

  37 Glaisher, Travels in the Air, p.54

  38 The Times, 10 September 1862, p.10

  39 Ibid.

  40 Glaisher, Travels in the Air, p.57

  41 The Times, 10 September 1862, p.10

  42 See Michael Doughty, ‘James Glaisher’s 1862 Account of Balloon Sickness: Altitude, Decompression Injury, and Hypomexia’, Neurology, No. 60, 25 March 2003

  43 Glaisher, Travels in the Air, pp.60–1

  44 The Times, 11 September 1862, p.8

  45 Gaston Tissandier, Histoire de mes ascensions: Récit de vingt-quatre voyages aériens, Paris, 1868–77

  46 Glaisher, Travels in the Air, pp.71–2

  47 Ibid., pp.62, 50

  48 J.L. Hunt, p.327

  49 Glaisher, Travels in the Air, pp.84–94

  50 J.L. Hunt, p.329

  51 John D. Cox, The Storm Watchers, pp.20–3

  52 Michael Doughty, 2003

  53 Glaisher, Travels, pp.61–2

  54 Hatton Turnor to The Times, 12 July 1863, in Astra Castra, p.245

  55 Glaisher, Travels in the Air, p.62

  56 Ibid., pp.79, 100

  57 Ibid., pp.99–100

  58 Ibid., pp.81–2

  59 James Glaisher, ‘Address to the Young Men’s Christian Association’, Good News, 1875; reprinted in Astra Castra, pp.387–8

  60 Ibid., pp.386–9

  CHAPTER 9: MARINERS OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE

  1 Fonvielle, in Travels in the Air, London, 1871, p.265

  2 Gaston Flammarion, in Travels in the Air, London, 1871, p.112

  3 Ibid., p.120

  4 Michael J. Crowe, The Extra-Terrestrial Life Debate, 1998, pp.378–9

  5 R.H. Sherard, ‘Flammarion the Astronomer’, in McClure’s Magazine, 1894

  6 Crowe, p.386

  7 Ibid., p.383

  8 Camille Flammarion, L’Astronomie populaire, Paris, 1880

  9 Camille Flammarion, L’Atmosphère, Paris, 1888, p.163

  10 Sherard, 1894

  11 Flammarion, in Travels in the Air, London, 1871, p.105

  12 Ibid.

  13 Ibid., p.122

  14 Ibid.

  15 Ibid., pp.123, 142, 106

  16 Stan Yorke, Weather Forecasting Made Simple, Countryside Books, 2010, pp.6–8

  17 Flammarion, in Travels in the Air, London, 1871, p.111

  18 Ibid., p.123

  19 Ibid., p.179

  20 Ibid., pp.123, 136

  21 Ibid., p.174

  22 Ibid., p.136

  23 Ibid., p.140

  24 Jason Chapman et al., ‘Vertical-Looking Radar: A New Tool for Monitoring High-Altitude Insect Migration’, BioScience, Vol. 53, No. 5, May 2003

  25 Flammarion, in Travels in the Air, London, 1871, pp.154, 160

  26 Ibid., pp.128, 140, 136

  27 Ibid., pp.169, 166

  28 Ibid., pp.179, 183–4

  29 Ibid., pp.120, 147

  30 Ibid., pp.147–8

  31 Tissandier, in Travels in the Air, London, 1871, p.291

  32 Ibid.

  33 Ibid., p.292

  34 Ibid.

  35 Ibid., p.295

  36 Ibid.

  37 Ibid., p.296

  38 Ibid.

  39 Ibid., pp.296–7

  40 Ibid., p.301

  41 Ibid., pp.305–6

  42 Ibid., p.311

  43 Ibid., p.322

  44 Ibid., pp.350–3

  45 Gaston Tissandier, ‘Histoire d’un ballon’, Le Magasin pittoresque, Tome XXXVIII, 1870, Tissandier Collection, Library of Congress, Washington

  46 Ibid. ‘Histoire d’un ballon’, Chapitre XII, ‘Les Courants d’air’

  47 Gaston Tissandier, Voyages aériens, Paris 1870

  48 Tissandier, in Travels in the Air, London, 1871, p.398

  49 The copy of Travels in the Air, with Glaisher’s manuscript comments, is held at the Royal Astronomical Society; J.L. Hunt, p.332

  CHAPTER 10: PARIS AIRBORNE

  1 Paul Maincent, Genèse de la poste aérienne du siège de Paris, Paris, 1951, p.58

  2 The Times, original paper copies held in the London Library archive

  3 Robert Baldick, The Siege of Paris, Batsford, 1964, p.28

  4 The Times, 17 September 1871

  5 Maincent, p.60

  6 Henry Labouchère, in Baldick, p.28

  7 Baldick, pp.29–31

  8 Gaston Tissandier, ‘Les Ballons du siège de Paris’, Magasin pittoresque, Tome XL, 1872, p.1, Library of Congress Archive, Tissandier Box 11

  9 Baldick, p.128

  10 Théophile Gautier, Les Plus belles lettres de Théophile Gautier, présentées par Pierre Descaves, Calmann-Levy, Paris, 1962, p.139

  11 Baldick, p.145

  12 The Times, 3 October 1870, p.9

  13 Victor Debuchy, Les Ballons du siège de Paris, Paris, 1973, Annexe: ‘Envols des ballons’, pp.408–22

  14 Gaston Tissandier, ‘Les Ballons du siège de Paris’, Magasin pittoresque, Paris, 1872, p.i

  15 Prinet and Dilasser, pp.173, 187; Maincent, p.56

  16 Prinet and Dilasser, p.175; Maincent, p.66

  17 Prinet and Dilasser, p.174; Maincent, p.60

  18 Maincent, p.66

  19 Ibid., p.91

  20 Debuchy, p.408

  21 Prinet and Dilasser, p.173

  22 Maincent, p.102

  23 Fonvielle, Aventures Aériennes et expériences mémorables, 1876, p.364

  24 John Fisher, Airlift 1870: The Balloon and Pigeon Post in the Siege of Paris, Max Parrish, 1965, p.21; Fonvielle, Aventures aériennes, p.364

  25 The Times, 28 September 1871, p.5, partly quoted in Prinet and Dilasser, pp.179–80

  26 Fisher, p.23

  27 Tissandier, ‘Les Ballons du siège de Paris’, p.2

  28 Prinet and Dilasser, p.184

  29 Ibid., pp.182–3

  30 Fisher, p.34

  31 Hugo, Choses vues, in Joanna Richardson, Paris Under Siege: A Journal of the Events of 1870–1871, London, 1982

  32 Fisher, p.36

  33 Gambetta’s despatch quoted Stephens, p.107

  34 Account taken from Moniteur Universel (Tours edition), 7 October 1870; Stephens, pp.106–7; and Tissandier, ‘Les Ballons du siège de Paris’

  35 Rolt, p.174

  36 For a complete list of all siege balloons, with their launch dates and a landing map, see Stephens, pp.106–10

  37 Prinet and Dilasser, p.184

  38 Baldick, p.126

  39 David L. Bristow, Sky Sailors, Farrar Straus Giroux, 2010, pp.89–91

  40 Debuchy, pp.236–8; Rolt, p.176

  41 Théophile Gautier, Tableaux du siège, Paris, 1871, p.42

  42 Tissandier, ‘Les Ballons du siège de Paris’, p.11

  43 Baldick, pp.114–15

  44 Prinet and Dilasser, p.186

  45 Baldick, pp.116–18

  46 Ibid., pp.117–18; Fisher, pp.70–2; Rolt, p.175; Prinet and Dilasser, p.186. Not surprisingly, each gives slightly different figures (see n.48, below). The whole process is described by Nadar in Quand j’étais photographe

  47 Prinet and Dilasser, p.186; Baldick, p.116

  48 Statistics from Baldick, p.118, and Rolt, p.177. Victor Debuchy estimates 407 carrier pigeons released, carrying 95,642 individual messages, with seventy-three pigeons making it home. But he makes no specific claim for the total number of messages actually delivered by them. As with all wartime statistics, these figures have to be treated with caution. Debuchy, pp.402–4

  49 Baldick, p.120

  50 Richardson, p.92

  51 ‘Une Bombe aux feuillantes’, in Victor Hugo, L’Année terrible, Paris, 1871, p.126

  52 Hugo, pp.116–18

  53
Fisher, p.128

  54 Hugo, pp.116 –17; also Fisher, p.129

  55 This irony of war is discussed by Graham Robb, Victor Hugo, Picador, 1997, p.145

  56 Fisher, p.139

  57 Debuchy, Annexe: ‘Les Ballons’; Stephens, flight list, pp.106–10; Rolt, p.176

  58 Coxwell, pp.179–82

  59 Rolt, p.176

  60 Debuchy, pp.224–36

  61 Coxwell, p.181; Rolt, p.176; Debuchy, pp.398–9

  62 Prinet and Dilasser, p.184

  63 Fulgence Marion, Wonderful Balloon Ascents, Paris, London and New York, 1874, p.220

  64 J.L. Hunt, p.333

  65 Rolt, p.177

  66 Fisher, fig. X

  67 Rolt, pp.198–9; La Part du rêve, 1983

  68 Rolt, p.152

  CHAPTER 11: EXTREME BALLOONS

  1 See Thor Hanson, Feathers: The Evolution of a Natural Miracle, Basic Books, 2012

  2 Rolt, p.214

  3 Album Maupassant, Pléiade, Gallimard, 1987, pp.248–9, 186

  4 H.G. Wells, The War in the Air, 1908, Chapter 3, ‘The Balloon’, Penguin Classics, 2005, p.53

  5 Ibid., Chapter 4, ‘The German Air-Fleet’, p.79

  6 All posters from the Anderson-Abruzzo Albuquerque International Balloon Museum, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  7 Dolly Shepherd (with Peter Hearn), When the ’Chute Went Up: Adventures of a Pioneer Lady Parachutist, London, 1970. See also the Ashby de la Zouche Museum, Leicestershire. Dolly lived to raise a family, serve in the First World War, and fly (but not jump) with the Red Devils parachute team in the 1980s

  8 Ibid., p.129

  9 Ibid., pp.48–9

  10 Salomon Andrée, The Andrée Diaries, Being the Diaries and Records of S.A. Andrée, Nils Strindberg and Knut Fraenkel … Discovered on White Island in 1930. Translated by Edward Adams-Ray, London, 1931, pp.6–10

  11 Alec Wilkinson, The Ice Balloon, Fourth Estate, 2012, p.39

  12 Ibid., p.15

  13 David Hempleman-Adams, At the Mercy of the Winds, Bantam, 2001

  14 Andrée Diaries, pp.9–11

  15 Rolt, p.153

  16 George Putnam, Andrée: The Record of a Tragic Adventure, New York, 1930, p.87

  17 Andrée Diaries, p.28

  18 Putnam, pp.88–118

  19 Andrée Diaries, p.30

  20 Ibid., pp.35–6

  21 Ibid., pp.36, 34

  22 Ibid., p.36

  23 Ibid., pp.29–31; Wilkinson, p.88; Rolt, pp.153–5

  24 Rolt, pp.153–4

  25 Andrée Diaries, p.31

  26 Ibid., p.35

  27 Ibid., p.38

  28 Putnam, pp.75–6

  29 Nansen quoted ibid.; and Wilkinson, p.130

  30 Wilkinson, p.162

  31 Andrée Diaries, p.68

  32 Ibid., p.ix

  33 Strindberg almanac, ibid., p.419

  34 Ibid., p.422

  35 Andrée Diaries, p.111

  36 Ibid., pp.76–7

  37 ‘Height of the Balloon during its Flight’, a graph profile, Andrée Diaries, p.81

  38 Strindberg almanac, ibid., p.428

  39 Ibid.; Andrée Diaries, p.84

  40 Andrée Diaries, p.348

  41 Strindberg, ‘Letter to Anna’, ibid., p.431

  42 Strindberg almanac, Andrée Diaries, pp.428–9; Andrée Diaries, p.112

  43 Andrée Diaries, p.353

  44 Ibid., p.352

  45 Ibid., p.353

  46 Ibid., pp.352–3

  47 Ibid., p.88

  48 Rolt, p.155

  49 Strindberg almanac, Andrée Diaries, p.433

  50 Andrée Diaries, p.92

  51 Ibid., p.95; Strindberg almanac, ibid., p.434

  52 Rolt, p.157

  53 Strindberg almanac, Andrée Diaries, p.443

  54 Strindberg ‘Letter to Anna’, ibid., p.451

  55 Andrée Diaries, p.184; and see ‘Andrée Polar Expedition’ map

  56 Ibid., p.189

  57 Strindberg ‘Letter to Anna’, ibid., p.451

  58 Andrée Diaries, pp.189, 444

  59 Ibid., pp.ix, 169

  60 Ibid., p.199

  61 Ibid., p.412

  62 Strindberg almanac, ibid., p.434

  63 Andrée Diaries, pp.414–15; Wilkinson, p.221

  64 Strindberg almanac, Andrée Diaries, p.435

  EPILOGUE

  1 As so often in ballooning, her true story has partly been told in fiction, in the novel Anna’s Book, by George MacBeth, 1983

  2 This remarkable phenomenon can be explored at various internet sites, such as HotAirBalloonEvents.org

  3 Coral Reefs: Research Methods, D. R. Stoddard, UNESCO, 1987

  Bibliography

  ARCHIVES AND MUSEUMS

  The London Library

  The British Library, London

  The Royal Society, London

  The Penn-Gaskell Collection, Science Museum, London

  The Cuthbert-Hodgson Collection, National Aerospace Library, Royal Aeronautical Society, Farnborough, Hampshire

  The British Balloon Museum and Library. Internet: http://www.bbml.org.uk/

  The Ashby de la Zouche Museum, Leicestershire

  Musée de l’Air et de l’Espace, Le Bourget, Paris

  Château de Balleroy, Musée de Ballons, 14490 Balleroy, Normandy, France

  The State Library of New South Wales, Australia

  The Tissandier Collection, Library of Congress, Washington DC

  The National Air and Space Museum, Washington DC

  The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Dulles International Airport, Washington DC

  The Smithsonian Library, Washington DC

  The Anderson-Abruzzo Albuquerque International Balloon Museum, New Mexico, USA

  The Andrée Expedition Polar Centre, Gränna, Sweden

  BIBLIOGRAPHY

  Aeronautica – see Monck Mason

  Salomon Andrée, The Andrée Diaries, Being the Diaries and Records of S.A. Andrée, Nils Strindberg and Knut Fraenkel … Discovered on White Island in 1930. Translated by Edward Adams-Ray, London, 1931

  The Marquis d’Arlandes, ‘My Ascent with Pilâtre de Rozier’, Paris, 21 November 1783; partly reprinted in Astra Castra, and Fontaine

  Astra Castra – see Charles Hatton Turnor

  Robert Baldick, The Siege of Paris, London, 1964

  Thomas Baldwin, Airopaedia, or Narrative of a Balloon Excursion from Chester in 1785, London, 1786

  R.M. Ballantyne, Up in the Clouds, London, 1870

  Joseph Banks, The Scientific Correspondence of Joseph Banks, Vol. 2, 1782–1784, ed. Neil Chambers, Pickering & Chatto, London, 2007

  Stephan Bann, ‘Nadar’s Aerial View’, Seeing From Above: The Aerial View in Visual Culture, I.B. Tauris online publisher, 2012

  Cyrano de Bergerac, The Comical History of the Empires of the Worlds in the Moon and the Sun, 1687; from the original French, Histoire comique … de la Lune, 1657; available as Journey to the Moon, translated by Andrew Brown, Hesperus Classics, London, 2007

  Jean-Pierre Blanchard, Journal of my Forty-Fifth Ascension and the First in America, Philadelphia, 1794; partly reprinted in Astra Castra

  David L. Bristow, Sky Sailors: True Stories of the Balloon Era, Farrar Straus Giroux, 2010

  F.L. Bruel, Histoire aéronautique par les monuments, Paris, 1909

  Jean Bruno, Les Aventures de Paul enlevé par un ballon, illustrations by J. Desoudré, Paris, Bernardin-Bechet, 1858

  Tiberius Cavallo, FRS, A Treatise on the History and Practice of Aerostation, London, 1785

  Jason Chapman et al., ‘Vertical-Looking Radar: A New Tool for Monitoring High-Altitude Insect Migration’, BioScience, Vol. 53, No. 5, May 2003

  Dr Alexandre Charles, Representation du Globe Aérostatique … avec le récit de son voyage aérien, Paris, December 1783; partly reprinted in Astra Castra, and Fontaine

  I.F. Clarke, Voices Prophesying War: Future Wars 1763–3749, OUP, 1993

  John D. Cox, The Storm Watchers: The Turbulent History of W
eather Prediction, 2003

  Henry Coxwell, My Life and Balloon Experiences, London, 1887

  Stephen Crane, The Red Badge of Courage, 1895

  Tom D. Crouch, The Eagle Aloft: Two Centuries of Ballooning in America, Smithsonian Institution, 1983

  Michael J. Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate 1750–1900, Dover Books, 1999

  General George C. Custer, ‘War Memoirs’, The Galaxy: A Magazine of Entertaining Reading, Vol. XXII, November 1876, pp.685–7; partly reprinted in Crouch, and Evans

  Victor Debuchy, Les Ballons du siège de Paris, Editions France-Empire, Paris, 1973

  Charles Dickens, ‘Vauxhall Gardens by Day’, Sketches by Boz, 1836

  Charles Dickens, ‘Lying Awake’, Household Words, 30 October 1852

  Linda Donn, The Little Balloonist, (a novel about Sophie Blanchard), Penguin USA, 2006

  Mark Dorrian, ‘On Google Earth’, Seeing From Above: The Aerial View in Visual Culture, I.B. Tauris online publisher, 2012

  Michael Doughty, ‘James Glaisher’s 1862 Account of Balloon Sickness: Altitude, Decompression Injury, and Hypomexia’, Neurology, No. 60, 25 March 2003

  Arthur B. Evans, Jules Verne Rediscovered: Didacticism and the Scientific Novel, Greenwood Press, 1988

  Charles M. Evans, War of the Aeronauts: A History of Ballooning in the Civil War, Stackpole Books, USA, 2002

  John Fisher, Airlift 1870: The Balloon and Pigeon Post in the Siege of Paris, Max Parrish, 1965

  Camille Flammarion, L’Astronomie populaire, Paris, 1880

  Camille Flammarion, L’Atmosphère, Paris, 1888

  Camille Flammarion, see James Glaisher, Travels in the Air

  Kate Flint, The Victorians and the Visual Imagination, CUP, 2000

  Raymonde Fontaine, La Manche en ballon, Paris, 1982

  Wilfrid de Fonvielle, Aventures aériennes et expériences mémorables, Paris, 1876

  Wilfrid de Fonvielle, see James Glaisher, Travels in the Air

  Tom Fort, Under the Weather, Arrow Books, 2007

  Elaine Freedgood, Victorian Writing About Risk, CUP, 2000

  Théophile Gautier, Tableaux du siège, Paris, 1871

  Théophile Gautier, Les Plus belles lettres, Paris, 1962

  Charles Gillispie, The Montgolfier Brothers, Princeton UP, 1983

  James Glaisher, with Camille Flammarion, Gaston Tissandier and Wilfrid de Fonvielle, Travels in the Air, with 125 illustrations, London, 1871

  James Glaisher, ‘Address to the Young Men’s Christian Association’, Good News, 1875; reprinted in Astra Castra

  Thor Hanson, Feathers: The Evolution of a Natural Miracle, Basic Books, 2012

 
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