Abstract : .................................................................................................................................. 2
Chapter 1 : 1.Introduction ..................................................................................................... 3
Chapter 2 : 2. The phenomena of cybercrime .................................................................... 6
Chapter 3 : 3. The challenges of fighting cybercrime ....................................................... 9
Chapter 4 : 4. Anti-cybercrime strategies ......................................................................... 12
References .............................................................................................................................. 15
Computer crime, or cybercrime, is any crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been
used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target.
Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar (2011) define Cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed against
individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause
physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such
as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)".Such crimes may
threaten a nation’s security and financial health. Issues surrounding these types of crimes have
become high-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child
grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or
otherwise. Dr.Debarati Halder and Dr.K.Jaishankar(2011) further define cybercrime from the perspective of gender
and defined 'cybercrime against women' as "“Crimes targeted against women with a motive to intentionally harm
the victim psychologically and physically, using modern telecommunication networks such as internet and mobile
Chapter 1 : 1.Introduction
1.1 Infrastructure and services
The Internet is one of the fastest-growing areas of technical infrastructure development. Today, information and
communication technologies (ICTs) are omnipresent and the trend towards digitization is growing. The demand for
Internet and computer connectivity has led to the integration of computer technology into products that have
usually functioned without it, such as cars and buildings. Electricity supply, transportation infrastructure, military
services and logistics – virtually all modern services depend on the use of ICTs.
Although the development of new technologies is focused mainly on meeting consumer demands in western
countries, developing countries can also benefit from new technologies. With the availability of long-distance
wireless communication technologies such as WiMAX5 and computer systems that are now available for less than
USD 2006, many more people in developing countries should have easier access to the Internet and related
products and services.
The influence of ICTs on society goes far beyond establishing basic information infrastructure. The availability of
ICTs is a foundation for development in the creation, availability and use of network-based services. E-mails have
displaced traditional letters; online web representation is nowadays more important for businesses than printed
publicity materials; and Internet-based communication and phone services are growing faster than landline
The availability of ICTs and new network-based services offer a number of advantages for society in general,
especially for developing countries.
ICT applications, such as e-government, e-commerce, e-education, e-health and e- environment, are seen as
enablers for development, as they provide an efficient channel to deliver a wide range of basic services in remote
and rural areas. ICT applications can facilitate the achievement of millennium development targets, reducing
poverty and improving health and environmental conditions in developing countries. Given the right approach,
context and implementation processes, investments in ICT applications and tools can result in productivity and
quality improvements. In turn, ICT applications may release technical and human capacity and enable greater
access to basic services. In this regard, online identity theft and the act of capturing another person’s credentials
and/or personal information via the Internet with the intent to fraudulently reuse it for criminal purposes is now one
of the main threats to further deployment of e-government and e-business services.
The costs of Internet services are often also much lower than comparable services outside the network.E-mail
services are often available free of charge or cost very little compared to traditional postal services.The online
encyclopaedia Wikipedia can be used free of charge, as can hundreds of online hosting services. Lower costs are
important, as they enable services to be used by many more users, including people
with only limited income. Given the limited financial resources of many people in developing countries, the Internet
enables them to use services they may not otherwise have access to outside the network.
1.2 Advantages and risks
The introduction of ICTs into many aspects of everyday life has led to the development of the modern concept of the
information society. This development of the information society offers great opportunities. Unhindered access to
information can support democracy, as the flow of information is taken out of the control of state authorities (as has
happened, for example, in Eastern Europe and North Africa). Technical developments have improved daily life – for
example, online banking and shopping, the use of mobile data services and voice over Internet protocol (VoIP)
telephony are just some examples of how far the integration of ICTs into our daily lives has advanced.
However, the growth of the information society is accompanied by new and serious threats. Essential services such
as water and electricity supply now rely on ICTs. Cars, traffic control, elevators, air conditioning and telephones
also depend on the smooth functioning of ICTs. Attacks against information infrastructure and Internet services now
have the potential to harm society in new and critical ways.
Attacks against information infrastructure and Internet services have already taken place. Online fraud and hacking
attacks are just some examples of computer-related crimes that are committed on a large scale every day. The
financial damage caused by cybercrime is reported to be enormous. In 2003 alone, malicious software caused
damages of up to USD 17 billion. By some estimates, revenues from cybercrime exceeded USD 100 billion in 2007,
outstripping the illegal trade in drugs for the first time. Nearly 60 per cent of businesses in the United States
believe that cybercrime is more costly to them than physical crime. These estimates clearly demonstrate the
importance of protecting information infrastructures.
Most of the above-mentioned attacks against computer infrastructure are not necessarily t
infrastructure. However, the malicious software “Stuxnet” that was discovered in 2010 underlines the threat of
attacks focusing on critical infrastructure.The software, with more than 4 000 functions, focused on computer
systems running software that is typically used to control critical infrastructure.
1.3 Cybersecurity and cybercrime
Cybercrime and cybersecurity are issues that can hardly be separated in an interconnected environment. The fact
that the 2010 UN General Assembly resolution on cybersecurity addresses cybercrime as one major challenge
underlines this. Cybersecurity plays an important role in the ongoing development of information technology, as
well as Internet services. Enhancing cybersecurity and protecting critical information infrastructures are essential
to each nation’s security and economic well-being. Making the Internet safer (and protecting Internet users) has
become integral to the development of new services as well as government policy. Deterring cybercrime is an
integral component of a national cybersecurity and critical information infrastructure protection strategy. In
particular, this includes the adoption of appropriate legislation against the misuse of ICTs for criminal or other
purposes and activities intended to affect the integrity of national critical infrastructures. At the national level, this
is a shared responsibility requiring coordinated action related to prevention, preparation, response and recovery
from incidents on the part of government authorities, the private sector and citizens. At the regional and
international level, this entails cooperation and coordination with relevant partners. The formulation and
implementation of a national framework and strategy for cybersecurity thus requires a comprehensive
approach.Cybersecurity strategies – for example, the development of technical protection systems or the education
of users to prevent them from becoming victims of cybercrime – can help to reduce the risk of cybercrime. The
development and support of cybersecurity strategies are a vital element in the fight against cybercrime.
The legal, technical and institutional challenges posed by the issue of cybersecurity are global and far- reaching,
and can only be addressed through a coherent strategy taking into account the role of different stakeholders and
existing initiatives, within a framework of international cooperation. In this regard, the World Summit on the
Information Society (WSIS) recognized the real and significant risks posed by inadequate cybersecurity and the
proliferation of cybercrime. The provisions of §§ 108-110 of the WSIS Tunis Agenda for the Information Society,
including the Annex, set out a plan for multistakeholder implementation at the international level of the WSIS
Geneva Plan of Action, describing the multistakeholder implementation process according to eleven action lines and
allocating responsibilities for facilitating implementation of the different action lines. At WSIS, world leaders and
governments designated ITU to facilitate the implementation of WSIS Action Line C5, dedicated to building
confidence and security in the use of ICTs.
1.4 International dimensions of cybercrime
Cybercrime often has an international dimension. E-mails with illegal content often pass through a number of
countries during the transfer from sender to recipient, or illegal content is stored outside the country. Within
cybercrime investigations, close cooperation between the countries involved is very important. The existing mutual
legal assistance agreements are based on formal, complex and often time-consuming procedures, and in addition
often do not cover computer-specific investigations. Setting up procedures for quick response to incidents, as well
as requests for international cooperation, is therefore vital.
A number of countries base their mutual legal assistance regime on the principle of “dual criminality”.Investigations
on a global level are generally limited to those crimes that are criminalized in all participating countries. Although
there are a number of offences – such as the distribution of child pornography – that can be prosecuted in most
jurisdictions, regional differences play an important role. One example is other types of illegal content, such as hate
speech. The criminalization of illegal content differs in various countries. Material that can lawfully be distributed in
one country can easily be illegal in another country.
The computer technology currently in use is basically the same around the world.Apart from language issues and
power adapters, there is very little difference between the computer systems and cell phones sold in Asia and those
sold in Europe. An analogous situation arises in relation to the Internet. Due to standardization, the network
protocols used in countries on the African continent are the same as those used in the United States.
Standardization enables users around the world to access the same services over the Internet.
The question is what effect the harmonization of global technical standards has on the development of the national
criminal law. In terms of illegal content, Internet users can access information from around the world, enabling
them to access information available legally abroad that could be illegal in their own country.
Theoretically, developments arising from technical standardization go far beyond the globalization of technology
and services and could lead to the harmonization of national laws. However, as shown by the negotiations over the
First Protocol to the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime (the “Convention on Cybercrime”),the principles
of national law change much more slowly than technical developments. Although the Internet may not recognize
border controls, there are means to restrict access to certain information.The access provider can generally block
certain websites and the service provider that stores a website can prevent access to information for those users on
the basis of IP-addresses linked to a certain country (“IP-targeting”). Both measures can be circumvented, but are
nevertheless instruments that can be used to retain territorial differences in a global network. The OpenNet
Initiative reports that this kind of censorship is practised by about two dozen countries.
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