Cybercrime, p.1
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       CyberCrime, p.1

           RawanShiha
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CyberCrime
Abstract : .................................................................................................................................. 2

  Chapter 1 : 1.Introduction ..................................................................................................... 3

  Chapter 2 : 2. The phenomena of cybercrime .................................................................... 6

  Chapter 3 : 3. The challenges of fighting cybercrime ....................................................... 9

  Chapter 4 : 4. Anti-cybercrime strategies ......................................................................... 12

  References .............................................................................................................................. 15

  2

  Abstract :

  Computer crime, or cybercrime, is any crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been

  used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target.

  Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar (2011) define Cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed against

  individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause

  physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such

  as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)".Such crimes may

  threaten a nation’s security and financial health.[citation needed] Issues surrounding these types of crimes have

  become high-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child

  grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or

  otherwise. Dr.Debarati Halder and Dr.K.Jaishankar(2011) further define cybercrime from the perspective of gender

  and defined 'cybercrime against women' as "“Crimes targeted against women with a motive to intentionally harm

  the victim psychologically and physically, using modern telecommunication networks such as internet and mobile

  phones”.

  Cyber Crime

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  Chapter 1 : 1.Introduction

  1.1 Infrastructure and services

  The Internet is one of the fastest-growing areas of technical infrastructure development. Today, information and

  communication technologies (ICTs) are omnipresent and the trend towards digitization is growing. The demand for

  Internet and computer connectivity has led to the integration of computer technology into products that have

  usually functioned without it, such as cars and buildings. Electricity supply, transportation infrastructure, military

  services and logistics – virtually all modern services depend on the use of ICTs.

  Although the development of new technologies is focused mainly on meeting consumer demands in western

  countries, developing countries can also benefit from new technologies. With the availability of long-distance

  wireless communication technologies such as WiMAX5 and computer systems that are now available for less than

  USD 2006, many more people in developing countries should have easier access to the Internet and related

  products and services.

  The influence of ICTs on society goes far beyond establishing basic information infrastructure. The availability of

  ICTs is a foundation for development in the creation, availability and use of network-based services. E-mails have

  displaced traditional letters; online web representation is nowadays more important for businesses than printed

  publicity materials; and Internet-based communication and phone services are growing faster than landline

  communications.

  The availability of ICTs and new network-based services offer a number of advantages for society in general,

  especially for developing countries.

  ICT applications, such as e-government, e-commerce, e-education, e-health and e- environment, are seen as

  enablers for development, as they provide an efficient channel to deliver a wide range of basic services in remote

  and rural areas. ICT applications can facilitate the achievement of millennium development targets, reducing

  poverty and improving health and environmental conditions in developing countries. Given the right approach,

  context and implementation processes, investments in ICT applications and tools can result in productivity and

  quality improvements. In turn, ICT applications may release technical and human capacity and enable greater

  access to basic services. In this regard, online identity theft and the act of capturing another person’s credentials

  and/or personal information via the Internet with the intent to fraudulently reuse it for criminal purposes is now one

  of the main threats to further deployment of e-government and e-business services.

  The costs of Internet services are often also much lower than comparable services outside the network.E-mail

  services are often available free of charge or cost very little compared to traditional postal services.The online

  encyclopaedia Wikipedia can be used free of charge, as can hundreds of online hosting services. Lower costs are

  important, as they enable services to be used by many more users, including people

  with only limited income. Given the limited financial resources of many people in developing countries, the Internet

  enables them to use services they may not otherwise have access to outside the network.

  1.2 Advantages and risks

  The introduction of ICTs into many aspects of everyday life has led to the development of the modern concept of the

  information society. This development of the information society offers great opportunities. Unhindered access to

  information can support democracy, as the flow of information is taken out of the control of state authorities (as has

  happened, for example, in Eastern Europe and North Africa). Technical developments have improved daily life – for

  example, online banking and shopping, the use of mobile data services and voice over Internet protocol (VoIP)

  telephony are just some examples of how far the integration of ICTs into our daily lives has advanced.

  However, the growth of the information society is accompanied by new and serious threats. Essential services such

  as water and electricity supply now rely on ICTs. Cars, traffic control, elevators, air conditioning and telephones

  also depend on the smooth functioning of ICTs. Attacks against information infrastructure and Internet services now

  have the potential to harm society in new and critical ways.

  Attacks against information infrastructure and Internet services have already taken place. Online fraud and hacking

  attacks are just some examples of computer-related crimes that are committed on a large scale every day. The

  financial damage caused by cybercrime is reported to be enormous. In 2003 alone, malicious software caused

  damages of up to USD 17 billion. By some estimates, revenues from cybercrime exceeded USD 100 billion in 2007,

  outstripping the illegal trade in drugs for the first time. Nearly 60 per cent of businesses in the United States

  believe that cybercrime is more costly to them than physical crime. These estimates clearly demonstrate the

  importance of protecting information infrastructures.

  Cyber Crime

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  Most of the above-mentioned attacks against computer infrastructure are not necessarily t
argeting critical

  infrastructure. However, the malicious software “Stuxnet” that was discovered in 2010 underlines the threat of

  attacks focusing on critical infrastructure.The software, with more than 4 000 functions, focused on computer

  systems running software that is typically used to control critical infrastructure.

  1.3 Cybersecurity and cybercrime

  Cybercrime and cybersecurity are issues that can hardly be separated in an interconnected environment. The fact

  that the 2010 UN General Assembly resolution on cybersecurity addresses cybercrime as one major challenge

  underlines this. Cybersecurity plays an important role in the ongoing development of information technology, as

  well as Internet services. Enhancing cybersecurity and protecting critical information infrastructures are essential

  to each nation’s security and economic well-being. Making the Internet safer (and protecting Internet users) has

  become integral to the development of new services as well as government policy. Deterring cybercrime is an

  integral component of a national cybersecurity and critical information infrastructure protection strategy. In

  particular, this includes the adoption of appropriate legislation against the misuse of ICTs for criminal or other

  purposes and activities intended to affect the integrity of national critical infrastructures. At the national level, this

  is a shared responsibility requiring coordinated action related to prevention, preparation, response and recovery

  from incidents on the part of government authorities, the private sector and citizens. At the regional and

  international level, this entails cooperation and coordination with relevant partners. The formulation and

  implementation of a national framework and strategy for cybersecurity thus requires a comprehensive

  approach.Cybersecurity strategies – for example, the development of technical protection systems or the education

  of users to prevent them from becoming victims of cybercrime – can help to reduce the risk of cybercrime. The

  development and support of cybersecurity strategies are a vital element in the fight against cybercrime.

  The legal, technical and institutional challenges posed by the issue of cybersecurity are global and far- reaching,

  and can only be addressed through a coherent strategy taking into account the role of different stakeholders and

  existing initiatives, within a framework of international cooperation. In this regard, the World Summit on the

  Information Society (WSIS) recognized the real and significant risks posed by inadequate cybersecurity and the

  proliferation of cybercrime. The provisions of §§ 108-110 of the WSIS Tunis Agenda for the Information Society,

  including the Annex, set out a plan for multistakeholder implementation at the international level of the WSIS

  Geneva Plan of Action, describing the multistakeholder implementation process according to eleven action lines and

  allocating responsibilities for facilitating implementation of the different action lines. At WSIS, world leaders and

  governments designated ITU to facilitate the implementation of WSIS Action Line C5, dedicated to building

  confidence and security in the use of ICTs.

  1.4 International dimensions of cybercrime

  Cybercrime often has an international dimension. E-mails with illegal content often pass through a number of

  countries during the transfer from sender to recipient, or illegal content is stored outside the country. Within

  cybercrime investigations, close cooperation between the countries involved is very important. The existing mutual

  legal assistance agreements are based on formal, complex and often time-consuming procedures, and in addition

  often do not cover computer-specific investigations. Setting up procedures for quick response to incidents, as well

  as requests for international cooperation, is therefore vital.

  A number of countries base their mutual legal assistance regime on the principle of “dual criminality”.Investigations

  on a global level are generally limited to those crimes that are criminalized in all participating countries. Although

  there are a number of offences – such as the distribution of child pornography – that can be prosecuted in most

  jurisdictions, regional differences play an important role. One example is other types of illegal content, such as hate

  speech. The criminalization of illegal content differs in various countries. Material that can lawfully be distributed in

  one country can easily be illegal in another country.

  The computer technology currently in use is basically the same around the world.Apart from language issues and

  power adapters, there is very little difference between the computer systems and cell phones sold in Asia and those

  sold in Europe. An analogous situation arises in relation to the Internet. Due to standardization, the network

  protocols used in countries on the African continent are the same as those used in the United States.

  Standardization enables users around the world to access the same services over the Internet.

  The question is what effect the harmonization of global technical standards has on the development of the national

  criminal law. In terms of illegal content, Internet users can access information from around the world, enabling

  them to access information available legally abroad that could be illegal in their own country.

  Cyber Crime

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  Theoretically, developments arising from technical standardization go far beyond the globalization of technology

  and services and could lead to the harmonization of national laws. However, as shown by the negotiations over the

  First Protocol to the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime (the “Convention on Cybercrime”),the principles

  of national law change much more slowly than technical developments. Although the Internet may not recognize

  border controls, there are means to restrict access to certain information.The access provider can generally block

  certain websites and the service provider that stores a website can prevent access to information for those users on

  the basis of IP-addresses linked to a certain country (“IP-targeting”). Both measures can be circumvented, but are

  nevertheless instruments that can be used to retain territorial differences in a global network. The OpenNet

  Initiative reports that this kind of censorship is practised by about two dozen countries.

  Cyber Crime

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