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       Reading Companion to Book 1 of The Seculary of a Wandering Jew, p.1
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           Paulo Barata
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Reading Companion to Book 1 of The Seculary of a Wandering Jew
READING COMPANION TO BOOK 1 OF

  The Seculary of a Wandering Jew

  by

  Paulo Barata

  *****

  PUBLISHED BY:

  ISBN: 9781301258857

  Reading Companion to the The Seculary of a Wandering Jew - Book 1 - ENVY

  Copyright 2013 by Paulo Jorge Barata Santos

  Table of Contents

  Preface

  Timeline

  Personae

  The Family

  The Messianics/Christians

  The Judaeans

  The Romans

  The Pagans

  The Gods

  Places and Geography

  Units of Measurement

  Judaean Nomenclature

  Greco-Roman Nomenclature

  Preface

  The various chronicles/books that make up the heptalogy of the Seculary of a Wandering Jew cover the history of the last 2000 years of Western Civilization.

  More than a work of Historical Fiction, the books portray real protagonists of each period, placed within the context of the epoch and in the various geographies.

  Book 1 - ENVY / Years 33 to 93 - The Apostolic Age and the Jewish Diaspora

  Book 2 - LUST / Years 303 to 347 (out in 2013) - The End of Paganism and the Emergence of Christianity

  To be started:

  Book 3 - PRIDE / XI Century - The Crusades and the Kingdom of Jerusalem / Islam

  Book 4 - WRATH / XIV Century - The Black Death and the Creation of Europe

  Book 5 - GLUTTONY / XVI Century - Indulgences and Reformism

  Book 6 - GREED / XVII / XVIII Centuries - Colonialism / Enlightenment

  Book 7 - SLOTH / XX Century - Closure / Science / Materialism / Atheism

  The objective of this Reading Companion is to facilitate the reader with the numerous personae and places where the stories develop.

  By following the Historical Timeline, one can grasp the more important events that marked the period. The Lists of Characters, Geographies and Nomenclatures are expanded into the Glossary and provide further insights into each epoch.

  As further chronicles are finished, each additional Book will be added to this Reading Companion.

  January 2013

  Version 1.1

  HISTORICAL TIMELINE

  Year 33

  In this year, Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus, the Second Roman Emperor, ruled the whole of the Roman Empire, stretching from the south of the River Rhine to the Levant in the East and Egypt in Africa. In keeping with the illusion of Republican ideals, the two elected Consuls of the year were Servius Sulpicius Galba and Lucius Cornelius Felix.

  A financial crisis hit Rome, due to poorly chosen fiscal policies. Land values plummet, and credit is increased. These actions lead to a lack of cash, a crisis of confidence, and much land speculation. The primary victims are senators, knights and the wealthy. Many aristocratic families are ruined.

  In Judaea, one of the many Provinces of the Roman Empire, Pontius Pilate was the representative of the Empire ruling as Prefect (praefectus).

  In Jerusalem, the Holy City of Judaism, the civil and religious administration of the city was entrusted to the Great Sanhedrin (Assembly), formally ruled by a Nasi (Gamaliel ben Hillel) and a High Priest (Joseph ben Caiaphas).

  According to most scholars, it was in this year when Yeshua ben Joseph came to Jerusalem, was arrested and crucified by order of Pontius Pilate.

  Year 36

  A great uprising in Samaria is suppressed by Pontius Pilate after leading his troops from Caesarea. Lucius Vitellius, the governor of Roman Syria, had to intervene to curb Pilate's violence.

  Pilate was ordered back to Rome after harshly suppressing a Samaritan uprising, arriving just after the death of Tiberius, which occurred on 16 March in 37 AD. He was replaced by Marcellus.

  Eventually Pilate was banished to Gaul where it is reputed he committed suicide.

  Year 37

  In Jerusalem, Joseph Caiaphas, the High Priest, is replaced by Jonathan ben Annas, his brother-in-law and son of the powerful Annas ben Seth.

  On March 16, the 77 year-old Emperor Tiberius dies and two days later, his nephew Caligula, 24 years-old, is proclaimed the new Roman Emperor.

  The governor of Syria, Lucius Vitellius, visits Jerusalem and is triumphantly acclaimed by the people. His visit is interrupted due to the death of Tiberius.

  It is also the probable year of the conversion of the Pharisee Saul of Tarsus to Christianity after a vision.

  Year 38

  Naevius Sutorius Macro, commander of the Roman Praetorian Guard and a former protégé of Caligula is executed by order of the Emperor.

  The Emperor's uncle, Claudius, marries Valeria Messalina.

  A deputation is sent to Caligula from Alexandria to complain about the Judaeans, and a riot breaks out in this same city during a visit by Agrippa. The mob wanted to place statues of Caligula in every synagogue.

  Year 39

  Agrippa successfully accuses Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of conspiracy against Caligula. Antipas is exiled and Agrippa receives his territory.

  Caligula orders that a statue of himself be placed in the Temple in Jerusalem. The governor of Syria, Publius Petronius, who is responsible for erecting the statue, faces mass demonstrations by Jews of the region and manages to delay construction of the statue until the death of Caligula in 41.

  Philo leads a Jewish delegation to Rome to protest the anti-Jewish conditions in Alexandria.

  Year 40

  Caligula starts on a campaign to conquer Britain, which fails miserably. He declares himself victorious regardless.

  During a state visit to Rome, king Ptolemy of Mauretania, is murdered by Caligula. Noricum and Mauretania are incorporated into the Roman Empire.

  Caligula reforms the principatus into a Hellenistic Autocracy. He distributes honors carelessly, declares himself a god and orders that all the heads of the Greek deity statues be replaced by his. He also appoints his horse, Incitatus, a senator.

  Philo teaches that all men are born free.

  An early Christian church is erected at Corinth (most probable date).

  Year 41

  Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. Claudius succeeds his nephew Caligula as Emperor.

  Claudius names Agrippa I as Roman client king of Judea, restoring the province to its status as a client kingdom. The Emperor restores religious freedom to Jews throughout the empire, but prohibits Jews in Rome from proselytizing

  The disciples of Jesus form communities after the Diaspora, especially in Damascus and Antioch. For the first time they are called Christians.

  Years 42-43

  Claudius begins construction of Portus, close to the existing harbor of Ostia.

  The Emperor orders an invasion of Britain, beginning the conquest of the island, and annexes Lycia in Asia Minor, combining it with Pamphylia as a Roman province. The Romans now have complete control of the Mediterranean.

  Roman London (Londinium) was established.

  Mark the Evangelist becomes the first Pope of Alexandria, thus establishing the Christian Church in Africa.

  Year 44

  The emperor Claudius returns from his British campaign in triumph, the southeast part of Britannia now held by the Roman Empire, but the war will rage for another decade and a half.

  James the Greater, apostle, is executed by the sword on command of Agrippa.

  King Agrippa I of Judaea dies.

  Rome takes over the province once again and a new
Procurator for Judaea is appointed, Cuspius Faddus.

  Year 45

  The emperor Claudius expels the Jews from Rome.

  Paul of Tarsus begins his missionary travels, according to one traditional dating scheme.

  Cuspius Fadus, Procurator of Judea, suppresses the revolt of Theudas who is decapitated.

  Year 46

  Rhoemetalces III, Roman client king of the Odrysian Kingdom, is assassinated in an anti-Roman revolt. Claudius suppresses the revolt and annexes the kingdom into the Empire as the province of Thracia.

  A census shows that there are more than 6,000,000 Roman citizens.

  Rome and its northeast border are reunited by the Danube Road.

  Years 47-48

  The emperor Claudius invests Agrippa II with the office of superintendent of the Temple in Jerusalem.

  Paul starts his evangelistic work.

  Ventidius Cumanus is appointed Procurator of Judaea.

  Probable date of the Apostolic Council in Jerusalem. Paul of Tarsus begins his first mission (approximate date).

  Years 49-50

  Emperor Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the Younger (approximate date). Claudius adopts Nero.

  Seneca the Younger becomes Nero's tutor.

  Gamaliel ben Hillel dies.

  Paul's Epistle to the Galatians is probably written. Christianity spreads into Europe, especially at Rome and at Philippi.

  The Epistle to the Romans is written.

  Roman emperor Claudius appoints Agrippa II governor of Chalcis.

  Year 51

  While Jewish pilgrims were gathered in Jerusalem for the Pesach feast, a Roman legionnaire caused chaos by exposing himself to the Jews in the courtyard while calling out insults. Some of the Jews began to retaliate by hurling stones at the soldiers. Finding himself unable to calm the angry crowd, Cumanus called for fully armed reinforcements. In the ensuing stampede, according to Josephus' estimates, between twenty and thirty thousand people were crushed to death.

  In Judea a Roman soldier seized and burned a Torah-scroll. Procurator Cumanus had the culprit beheaded, calming down the Jews and delaying for two decades the outbreak of their revolt.

  After the murder of some Galileans, Judaeans under the leadership of two Zealots invaded Samaria and began a massacre. Cumanus led his troops against the militants, killing many and taking others prisoner. After hearing a case against Cumanus, Quadratus sent him, along with several Jewish and Samaritan leaders to plead their cases in Rome before the Emperor. Claudius decided in favor of the Jewish side. The Samaritan leaders were executed and Cumanus was sent into exile.

  Paul of Tarsus begins his second mission (approximate date). In the Epistle to the Galatians, Paul supports the separation of Christianity and Judaism.

  Year 52

  Emperor Claudius attempts to control the Fucine Lake by digging a 5,6 km tunnel through Monte Salviano, requiring 30,000 workers and eleven years.

  In Rome a law prohibits the execution of old and crippled slaves.

  Saint Thomas, one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, is believed to have landed in Kerala, India to preach the Gospel

  Marcus Antonius Felix succeeds Ventidius Cumanus as the Roman procurator of Judaea Province.

  Year 53

  Roman emperor Claudius removes Agrippa II from the tetrarchy of Chalcis.

  Nero marries Claudia Octavia, Claudius's daughter. The Emperor accepts Nero as his successor, to the detriment of Britannicus, his son by his first wife, Valeria Messalina.

  Year 54

  Claudius is poisoned by his fourth wife Agrippina the Younger at the age of 63 after a 14 year reign. His step-son and adoptive son Nero becomes Emperor.

  Violence erupts in Caesarea regarding the a local ordinance restricting the civil rights of Jews, creating clashes between Jews and pagans. The Roman garrison, made up of Syrians, takes the side of
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