Rubber plantation busine.., p.1
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       Rubber Plantation Business, p.1

           Denis Tifanny
 
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Rubber Plantation Business
Contents

  Chapter 1 – Choosing Base and Plant

  Choosing Base/Land 3

  Choosing Plant 4

  Types of rubber 4

  Types of Natural Rubber 6

  Processed Rubber Material 7

  Conventional Natural Rubber 10

  Concentrated Latex 13

  Block Rubber 15

  Crumb Rubber 16

  Tyre Rubber 16

  Reclaimed Rubber 17

  Synthetic Rubber and Its Quality Standard 18

  Common Usage of Synthetic Rubber 18

  Special Usage of Synthetic Rubber 19

  Advantages of Rubber 21

  Advantages of Natural Rubber 21

  Advantages of Synthetic Rubber 23

  Other Usage of Rubber Tree 23

  Tillage and Planting Process 28

  Planting 30

  Rubber Planting System 30

  i.Poly-culture System 30

  ii.Mono-culture System 32

  Way of Planting Seedlings 33

  i.Dismantling Seedlings 33

  ii. Transport 33

  Planting Execution 34

  i.Planting Rubber 34

  ii.Planting Cover Crops 35

  Seeds’ Need 36

  Maintaining Plant before Production 37

  Replanting 37

  Weeding 37

  Fertilizing Plants 38

  Selection and Thinning 40

  Maintaining Cover Crops 40

  Maintaining Plant after Production 40

  Weeding 41

  Fertilizing 42

  Pest Disturbance 43

  i.Pests 43

  ii.Snail 45

  iii.Mammals - Boar 46

  Disease Disturbance 48

  i.Root Disease – White Root Disease 48

  ii.Stem Disease – Spotted Cancer 50

  iii.Tapping Field Disease – Line Cancer 52

  iv.Leaf Disease – Colletotrichum Disease 53

  Tapping 55

  Mature Tapping Determination 55

  Tapping Tools 56

  i.Patron 56

  ii.Tapping Knife 56

  iii.Spout 57

  iv.Collection Cup 57

  v.Cup Hanger 57

  vi.Hanger Thread 57

  vii.Meter 58

  viii.Mal Knife 58

  ix.Calliper 58

  Drawing Tapping Field 58

  Execution of Tapping 59

  i.Tapping Slice Thickness 59

  ii.Tapping Slice Depth 60

  iii.Execution Time 61

  iv.Tapping Field Bark Recovery 61

  Frequency and Intensity of Tapping 62

  Exploitation System 63

  i.Conventional Exploitation System 63

  ii.Stimulation Exploitation System 64

  iii.Stab Exploitation System 66

  Bibliography 68

  ~Chapter 1~

  Choosing Base And Plant

 

  Choosing Base/Land

  Choosing your base or your land for the plantation is not that easy. Before you choose the land that you need, you have to check what kind of environmental condition is suitable for planting rubber plants (Hevea Brasiliensis).

  Hevea Brasiliensis or rubber plant requirements to survive:

  Planted around 0-400m above sea level with the maximum slope of 45°

  Deep, well drained loamy soil. Loamy soil has more nutrients and it is more humus than sandy soils, and others. It also retains water.

  It needs to be on the plateau so it does not need to tolerate flooding.

  It can stay on land of pH 4-8 which is acidic and slightly alkaline.

  It needs some legumes (groundcover):

  To control the weeds.

  To create less competition on the land.

  Produces more nitrogen which makes nitrogen not a limited factor.

  Keeping soil moist.

  Requires annual rainfall of 1500-4000mm/year, evenly throughout the year best will be between 2500-4000mm with 100-150 rainy days per year.

  The best temperature for this tree is between 20°C-27°C.

  Rubber plantation should be connected in one area and to scattered. The unification of these areas meant for the young plants are easily controlled.

  After attaining this knowledge you will be able to look for the suitable place to plant the Hevea Brasiliensis. The list above will be able to let you choose the place and survey the location for the plantation.

  Choosing Plant

  Types of rubber

  Before choosing a plant, there are other things you need to know. These things are what you call 2 types of rubber. These 2 types are the Natural rubber and the Synthetic Rubber.

  Synthetic Rubber is used frequently compared to natural rubber. This is because it has more types of chemical and the price remains stable. It rarely causes any problems sending or supplying consumers. Even though the total production of natural rubber is lower compared to synthetic rubber, natural rubber cannot be replaced by synthetic rubber. Natural rubber has its own excellence that cannot be surpassed by synthetic rubber.

  There are more advantages of the natural rubber:

  It has perfect resilience and elasticity.

  It has good plasticity that it simplifies the process.

  Low heat power.

  High groove cracking resistance.

  There are also other factors that make synthetic rubber special:

  Resistance to various types of chemical.

  Stable Price.

  Rarely has any problems sending or supplying to consumers.

  The points above are the things that natural rubber lacks. The price and supply of natural rubber will always change, and sometimes it changes turbulently. This turbulent change of price damages the market and troubles the producers. Sometimes because of the release of new regulations from the producer’s government the international market will be affected.

  Even though natural rubbers have some weakness in the chemical side, it has a good market share. These market shares are:

  Tyre Industry – tyre uses more natural rubber, even though it mixes with synthetic rubber.

  Air Plane Industry – almost all of the raw materials of airplane is made put of natural rubber.

  Production ratio of Natural rubber and Synthetic rubber is 1 to 2. However the total consumption of both is almost the same.

  Year

  1990

  2000

  2005

  Natural Rubber

  Production

  1.262

  1.501

  2.267

  Consumption

  108

  139

  218

  Synthetic Rubber

 
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