The fall of berlin 1945, p.62
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       The Fall of Berlin 1945, p.62

           Antony Beevor
 

  Remagen, Rhine bridge at, 84, 137, 140, 141, 151, 179

  Rettich, Capt. Peter, 264–5, 286, 328, 395, 398

  Reymann, Lt. Gen. Helmuth, 158, 176–8, 179, 180, 224, 245, 261, 268, 353, 377

  Ribbentrop, Reichsminister Joachim v., 83, 190, 237, 250, 251, 289, 304, 340

  ROA (Russian Liberation Army), 73–4, 85, 112, 113, 401, 402

  1st Division, 182–3

  Rodimtsev, Gen. A. I., 307

  Rogatin, Lt. Gen., 104

  Rokossovsky, Marshal K. K., 15, 16, 17, 25, 26, 28

  Order No. 006, 30, 49, 50, 87

  SMERSH investigation, 100, 106

  and Pomeranian campaign, 115, 117, 145

  and Berlin operation, 186, 206, 229, 242, 248, 249, 304, 337–8, 400

  and victory parade, 426, 427

  Rommel, Field Marshal Erwin, 7

  Roosevelt, President Franklin D., 5

  and Yalta, 77–82, 143

  and Stalin, 84–5, 145, 195

  and surrender negotiations, 194, 195

  mortally ill, 196

  death of, 204, 208

  Rosly, Gen. I. P., 340

  Rosslau (Twelfth Army HQ), 201

  Rudel, Col. Hans-Ulrich, 9

  Rüdersdorf, 258, 265

  Ruhr encirclement, 138, 142, 156, 190, 200, 201

  Rundstedt, Field Marshal Gerd v., 42

  Rusakov, Maj. Gen. Vladimir, 305

  Ruslanova, Lydia, 116, 428

  Russian Liberation Army, see ROA

  Rybalko, Col. Gen. P. S., 17, 60, 61, 229, 232, 239, 245, 255, 256, 296, 319, 324, 326

  Rzhevskaya, Yelena, 360, 363, 370, 390, 391, 399, 400, 403, 426, 431

  Sachsenhausen, 181, 274, 325

  Salzburg, 155, 192, 251, 275

  Samland Peninsula, 88

  Sandomierz bridgehead, 16

  Saucken, Gen. Dietrich v., 45, 62, 119–20, 122, 402

  Schaub, Julius, 277

  Schellenberg, SS-Gpfh. Walter, 275, 293–4, 346

  Schlesicher Bahnhof, 280

  Schmidtke, Erich, 3, 180

  Schmundt, Maj. Gen. Rudolf, 7

  Schneidemühl, 53, 55, 64, 91

  Schönhausen, 396, 397, 398, 403

  Schörner, Field Marshal Ferdinand, 52, 61, 92, 93, 126, 127, 225, 241, 244–5, 304, 344, 350, 402

  Schwägermann, Günther, 381

  Schwedt, 248

  Schwerin, sack of, 67

  Sebelev, Col. Pyotr, 185–6, 226, 315–16

  Seelow, 222, 229, 243, 246, 254

  Seelow Heights, 70, 71, 165, 209, 216, 222, 223, 225, 228, 229, 234, 241, 243, 256, 273

  Seidemann, Gen., 12

  Selivanovsky, Gen., 420

  Semyonov, Gen. Vladimir Semyonovich, 418

  Serov, Gen. I. A., 64, 99–100, 107

  and Polish forces, 199, 200

  and Berlin, 307, 308, 309

  and uranium, 325–6

  and surrender, 404, 405

  and aftermath, 406, 415, 420

  Seydlitz-Kurzbach, Gen. Walther v., 68, 69, 198

  ‘Seydlitz-truppen’ (German ‘anti-fascists’), 283, 337

  Shatilov, Maj. Gen. V. M., 347, 365

  Shcheglov, Dmitri, 34, 37

  Shtemenko, Gen. S. M., 146

  Siegessäule column, 340, 395

  Siemensstadt, 269, 323

  Simonov, Konstantin, 14, 212, 213, 336, 391–2, 403, 404, 408

  Simpson, Gen. William H., 141, 190, 191, 203, 204, 396

  Skorzeny, SS-Stbnfh. Otto, 174, 175

  SMERSH, 15, 16, 28, 33, 35, 96, 98, 102–3, 416–17

  and Red Army, 128, 185, 207, 228, 422, 423

  and Yakov Djugashvili, 136

  and screening of prisoners of war, 166, 185, 402

  and Polish formations, 199–200

  and Werwolf, 260, 415–16

  and hunting German officers, 300, 415–16

  and Reich Chancellery and death of Hitler, 360, 380, 389, 390, 391, 398, 399

  and post-war, 422, 423

  Sokolovsky, Gen. V. D., 368, 369, 403

  Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 34, 35, 112

  Spaatz, Gen. Carl, 403, 404

  Spandau, 323, 356, 384, 385

  citadel of, 323, 373–7

  Speer, Albert, xxxiii, 9, 10, 60, 171, 431

  and Hitler, 149, 157, 250, 251

  and ‘Nero Order’, 156–8

  and defence of Berlin, 180, 245

  and Berlin Philharmonic, 188–9

  and return to Berlin, 288–90

  on Himmler, 293

  and Germania, 355

  Spremberg, 239, 245

  SS

  camp guards, 86, 155

  Einsatzgruppen, 149

  execution of political prisoners, 181

  massacres in Leipzig area, 191–2

  split in leadership over continuing the war, 194

  Stadtmitte U-Bahn station, 371

  Stalin, Joseph, V., xxxiv, 5, 15, 17, 19, 20, 29, 32, 34, 111, 413

  and East Prussia, 28, 37

  and Holocaust, 38, 46

  and Red Army commanders, 63, 87, 127, 136, 309, 407, 423

  and Yalta, 77–82, 87, 137, 143, 420

  and Poland, 77, 80–82, 99–101, 143, 195, 295–6, 420

  and rear areas, 107

  summons Zhukov to Moscow, 136–7

  and Soviet prisoners of war, 137, 166, 423

  and race for Berlin, 137, 138–9, 142–5, 193–4, 210–11, 229, 232, 234, 240, 242, 265, 296, 307, 354

  and Western Allies, 142, 144, 145–6, 147, 193–4, 195, 210–11, 232–3, 263, 295, 304, 307, 341, 354, 399

  and change of policy on revenge, 197–8

  and Oder Neisse battles, 222, 229–30, 232, 239–40, 242, 248

  and assault on Berlin, 265, 296, 354, 365

  and death of Hitler, 364, 369, 389, 390, 399, 400

  and surrender, 368, 369, 402, 406

  and fear of Zhukov, 407, 425–6, 427

  and post-war Soviet Union, 422

  Stalin, Col. Vasily, 427

  Stalingrad, battle of, xxxiii, 1, 65, 69, 87–8, 91, 97, 138, 178, 216, 230, 316, 317, 392

  Stargard tank battle, 90–91, 125

  State Defence Committee, 137, 166, 325

  Stauffenberg, Col. Claus Schenk Graf v., 7, 320

  Stavka, 15, 25, 26, 78, 79, 80, 83, 86, 137, 144, 146, 147, 165, 211

  and Oder battle, 220, 222, 229, 232, 242

  and battle for Berlin, 256, 298, 390, 391

  and surrender, 304, 369, 400

  Steglitz, 416

  Steinau bridgehead, 62, 125

  Steiner, SS-Obergpfh. Felix, 89, 241, 267, 268, 269, 275, 298, 341

  Stendal, 396

  Stettinius, Edward R. Jnr, 401

  Stolp, 47, 55, 117, 118

  Strausberg, 256, 257, 260

  Strecker, Gen. Karl, 68

  Striegau, 126–7, 128

  Stumpfegger, Dr Ludwig, 252, 357, 380, 381, 383

  Stumpff, Col. Gen., 404, 405

  Stürz, Gauleiter, 159

  Stuttgart, 192

  Sulkhanishvili, Capt. Shota, 214–15, 219, 235, 389

  Supreme Headquarters Allied

  Expeditionary Force Europe

  (SHAEF), 146, 195–6, 202, 304, 305, 402, 429

  Susloparov, Maj. Gen. Ivan, 402

  Swedish diplomats and embassy, 132, 148, 173, 181, 302

  Swiss Red Cross, 298, 329

  Tangermünde, 191, 202, 396

  Tedder, Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur, 19, 20, 98, 140, 141, 142, 143, 403, 404, 405

  Tegel, 385

  Telegin, Lt. Gen. K. F., 216–17, 390

  Tempelhof, 283, 287, 302, 303, 319, 321, 367, 403, 417

  Teupitz, 330, 336

  Thiessen, Prof. Peter, 325

  Tiergarten, 282, 294, 319, 323, 340, 342, 356, 372, 384, 394, 395

  Tilsit, 24

  Tippelskirch, Gen. Kurt v., 148, 173, 400

  Tolbukhin, Marshal F. I., 82–3

  Torgau, 305, 3
06, 307, 374

  Treptow, 297, 303, 324

  Treuenbrietzen, 286, 298, 328

  Truman, President Harry S., 196, 295, 305, 341, 364

  Tsanava, Gen. L. F., 102, 308

  Tully, Andrew, 305–7

  Ulbricht, Walter, 418

  Unter den Linden, 304

  UPA (Ukrainian nationalist partisans), 100

  US Air Force, 100–101, 403

  and Red Army aviation incidents, 142, 296

  on Elbe front, 202, 263, 285

  last raids on Berlin, 249, 262

  US Army

  6th Army Group, 192

  12th Army Group, 141

  ARMIES

  First, 5, 137, 140, 141, 191, 203

  Third, 141, 146, 191, 200, 203, 325, 364

  Seventh, 192

  Ninth, 141, 190, 200, 202, 203, 204, 396, 397

  DIVISIONS

  82nd Airborne, 194, 291

  101st Airborne, 194, 291

  69th Infantry, 305

  83rd Infantry, 190–91, 202, 203

  84th Infantry, 191

  102nd Infantry, 191

  2nd Armored, 190, 203

  5th Armored, 191, 202

  Vadis, Lt. Gen. Aleksandr, 390, 391, 399

  Vasilevsky, Marshal Aleksandr, 33, 188

  Vienna, 189, 195, 251

  Vishnevsky, Vsevolod, 367, 368

  Vistula offensive, 7, 8, 10, 12–13, 15, 16–18, 19, 20, 84, 165

  Vlasienko, Sergeant, 212

  Vlasov, Gen. Andrey, 72, 182–3, 297, 401, 402

  Vlasovtsy, see ROA Volkssturm

  in East Prussia, 24, 27, 37, 98–9, 102, 103, 175

  recruitment and organization, 39, 40

  in Silesia, 41, 98–9, 175

  guarding and execution of camp prisoners, 41, 155, 191–2

  in Pomerania, 55

  in Berlin and Brandenburg, 70–71, 134, 148, 248

  and defence of Berlin, 178, 209, 245, 262, 271, 287, 296, 300–301, 308, 315, 316, 323, 356

  on Oder front, 182, 219, 221, 240, 258, 265

  Voss, Vice-Admiral, 398

  Vyshinsky, Andrei, 77, 403

  Waffen SS, 8, 39, 42, 54, 86

  and relationship with Army, 72, 241, 333, 334–5, 339

  execution of deserters, 123, 129, 176, 247, 339, 344

  and débâcle in Hungary, 151, 293

  scratch troops, 160

  Fagdverbände, 174

  foreigners in, 257–8, 322–3, 352, 356, 366, 367, 389, 392, 397

  ARMIES

  Sixth SS Panzer, 5, 21, 82, 195

  Eleventh SS Panzer, 88, 89

  CORPS

  III SS Germanische Panzer, 241, 267, 268

  V SS Mountain, 225, 228, 241, 242, 260, 270, 329

  XI SS Panzer, 225, 229, 246, 247, 260, 270, 329

  DIVISIONS

  Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler, 72, 151, 276, 387

  Das Reich, 54

  Feldherrnhalle, 71

  11th SS Nordland, 241–2, 246, 256, 257, 264, 269, 283, 286, 291, 301, 319, 323, 352, 367, 382

  SS Nederland, 241, 397

  30. Fanuar, 72, 133, 182, 208, 219, 242, 270

  Charlemagne, 116

  20th (Estonian), 129

  35th SS Police Grenadier, 332

  36th SS Grenadier, 334

  REGIMENTS AND UNITS

  ‘Danmark’, 257, 258, 302

  ‘Norge’, 257, 258, 302

  ‘Charlemagne’, 291–3, 302, 319, 321–2, 323, 352, 356–7

  Latvian Bn, 322

  Reichsführer SS guard bn, 294

  Heavy Panzer Bn 502, 218, 223, 330

  Heavy Panzer Bn 503, 322, 352 ‘Hermann von Salza’ Heavy Panzer Bn, 297, 319, 357

  Wagner, Gerd, 218

  Wagner, Gauleiter Joseph, 386, 387

  Warsaw, 18, 21, 22–3

  uprising, 20, 99

  ghetto, 23

  Wartheland, 22, 63

  Wedding, 346

  Weidendamm bridge, 382

  Weidling, Gen. Helmuth and Oder battle, 225, 228, 229, 237, 242, 245, 246, 256, 259

  and defence of Berlin, 267, 269, 286, 287, 291, 292, 301, 304, 320, 358

  and breakout plans, 320, 353, 358, 382

  and surrender, 386

  Weiss, Lt. Col. Rudolf, 351

  Weiss, Col. Gen. Walter, 116, 117, 118

  Weissensee, 301

  Weizsäcker, Dr Gerlag v., 325

  Wenck, Gen. Walther, 21, 90, 150, 200, 201, 276, 284, 285, 286, 298, 328, 329, 330, 350, 378, 379, 395, 397, 398

  Werwolf, 173–6, 260, 261, 412, 415, 416

  Werwolfsender, 261, 285

  White, Maj. Gen. Isaac D., 190

  Wiesbaden, 203

  Wilhelm Gustloff, sinking of, 51, 88

  Wilhelmstrasse, 304, 322, 347, 351, 352, 356, 366

  Winant, John G., 84

  Wittenberge, 202

  Wöhlermann, Col. Hans-Oscar, 228, 229, 237, 340

  Wolf, Friedrich, 214

  Wolf, Koni, 214, 373, 402

  Wolf, Markus, 214, 373, 417–18

  Wolff, SS-Obergpfh. Karl, 142, 144, 194

  Wolfsschanze HQ 6, 7, 96–8

  Woltersdorf, 240, 248

  Wriezen, 134, 242, 243, 246

  Yalta conference, 20, 77–82, 83, 99, 100, 143, 364, 420

  Yermakov, Maj. Gen. I. P., 328

  Yushchuk, Maj. Gen. I.I., 235–6

  Zavenyagin, Gen. Avraami, 324, 325

  Zehlendorf, 232

  Zerbst, 203, 232, 284

  Zhadov, Gen. A. S., 239, 245

  Zhukov, Marshal G. K., 15, 16, 18, 21, 26, 44, 63, 64, 65, 87, 88

  and Poland, 99

  and Pomeranian campaign, 115–16

  summoned to Moscow by Stalin, 136–7

  and ‘Berlin operation’, 144–5, 146–7, 165, 186, 206

  and arrest of Polish leaders, 195

  and battle for see low Heights, 216–23, 226, 227, 228, 229–30, 235, 242, 243,

  269

  and rivalry with Konev, 222, 230, 232, 242, 255, 256, 265, 296, 319

  and battle for Berlin, 255, 268, 269, 319, 384

  and surrender, 368, 369, 403, 404–5

  and death of Hitler, 389, 399, 400, 426, 428

  and Red Army discipline, 413

  and Stalin, 425, 426, 427, 428

  Ziegler, SS-Brigfh. Joachim, 241, 242, 269, 291, 292, 301–2, 366, 382, 383

  Zoo flak tower and bunker, 2, 268, 282, 287, 340, 355, 356, 372–3, 384, 391–2, 394

  * Medical personnel had such a terrible time that a very large proportion gave up medicine at the end of the war.

  * In October 1944, after Brandt had accused Dr Morell of providing Hitler with dangerous drugs, the dispute had been solved by making Brandt Reich Commissioner for sanitation and health. The allies later held him responsible for euthanasia killings and medical experiments on prisoners and rejected his defence that he had had no control over the establishments where this had happened.

  * Soviet estimates put the German strength at 180,000. This was because the Red Army included all those they took prisoner afterwards, including unarmed Volkssturm, city police, railway officials and members of the Reich Labour Service. Propaganda naturally played a part too.

  * Soviet sources claim that Busse’s force in the forest amounted to 200,000 men, with 300 tanks and 2,000 guns, a preposterous exaggeration for propaganda purposes. One detailed US Army report, however, puts the figures even lower, at around 40,000.

  * Some historians appear to think that the poison used in all cases was prussic acid, not cyanide, but prussic acid is in fact a form of cyanide. In any case, the Soviet autopsy report on Adolf and Eva Hitler states, ‘The remains of glass ampoules which had contained cyanide compound were found in the oral cavities. These were identical to those found in the mouths of Goebbels and his wife.’

  * Formerly RTsKhIDNI (Rossiisky Tsentr Khraneniya i Izucheniya Dokumentov Noveishei Istorii)

  † The ‘Special Archive’ of captured German d
ocuments comes from the 194,000 Nazi Party, Reich Chancellery, SS and Gestapo files discovered by the 59th Army of the Red Army at a castle in Lower Saxony (probably Schloss Furstenstein near Waldenburg, rather than the Schloss Althorn mentioned in some accounts)

  Table of Contents

  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

  MAPS

  GLOSSARY

  PREFACE

  1 Berlin in the New Year

  2 The ‘House of Cards’ on the Vistula

  3 Fire and Sword and ‘Noble Fury’

  4 The Great Winter Offensive

  5 The Charge to the Oder

  6 East and West

  7 Clearing the Rear Areas

  8 Pomerania and the Oder Bridgeheads

  9 Objective Berlin

  10 The Kamarilla and the General Staff

  11 Preparing the Coup de Grâce

  12 Waiting for the Onslaught

  13 Americans on the Elbe

  14 Eve of Battle

  15 Zhukov on the Reitwein Spur

  16 Seelow and the Spree

  17 The Führer’s Last Birthday

  18 The Flight of the Golden Pheasants

  19 The Bombarded City

  20 False Hopes

  21 Fighting in the City

  22 Fighting in the Forest

  23 The Betrayal of the Will

  24 Führerdämmerung

  25 Reich Chancellery and Reichstag

  26 The End of the Battle

  27 Vae Victis!

  28 The Man on the White Horse

  REFERENCES

  SOURCE NOTES

  SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

  INDEX

 


 

  Antony Beevor, The Fall of Berlin 1945

 


 

 
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