The fall of berlin 1945, p.58
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       The Fall of Berlin 1945, p.58

           Antony Beevor
 

  p. 357 ‘like any other…’, Misch, conversation, 8 July 2000

  p. 357 ‘hanged upside down’, Rzhevskaya, 1986, p. 44

  p. 357 Hitler’s fear of Eva Braun’s capture, see R.W. Leon, The Making of an Intelligence Officer, London, 1994

  p. 358 silver fox fur cape, Sereny, p. 538

  p. 358 ‘a book on Egyptian tombs’, RGVA-SA 1355/1/1, p. 18

  p. 358 Kempka and petrol

  p. 359 ‘black trousers and a grey-green military jacket’, SMERSH protocol of investigation, Vadis to Beria, 7 May, GARF 9401/2/96, pp. 175–82

  p. 359 lower bunker just before Hitler’s suicide, Sereny p. 539, and Misch, conversation, 8 July 2000

  p. 360 ‘The chief’s on fire’, and Linge taking watch, Misch, conversation, 8 July 2000

  p. 360 ‘The information which…’, Rzhevskaya, 1986, p. 36

  p. 360 ‘The air thickened…’, ibid., p. 31

  p. 361 ‘She said that she needed…’, Vadis to Beria, 7 May, GARF 9401/2/96, pp. 175–82

  p. 362 ‘left about 1,800 dead…’, TsAMO 236/2675/149, p. 274

  p. 362 ‘We reached a clearing…’, Gefreiter Martin Kleint, 30 April, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 309

  p. 363 ‘The boy was making painful grimaces’, Rzhevskaya, 1986, p. 31

  p. 364 ‘Personally, and aside from…’, Truman papers, quoted Martin Gilbert, The Day the War Ended, London, 1995, p. 41

  p. 364 ‘a secret agreement…’, NA 740.0011 EW/4–2445

  p. 364 Weidling in Führer bunker, evening of 30 April, NA RG 338 R–79, p. ii

  p. 365 ‘a special present to Stalin’, Klochkov, conversation, 25 July 2000

  p. 365 blood on stone columns, Belyaev, conversation, 25 July 2000

  p. 366 soldiers dropping grenades simultaneously, Klochkov, conversation, 25 July 2000

  p. 367 ‘as if we had just won…’, Weisz, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 120

  p. 367 ‘What I am about to say’, Vishnevsky, ‘Berlin Diary’, in Sevruk (ed.), pp. 162–93

  p. 368 ‘Comrade Stalin has just gone to bed’, Zhukov, iv, pp. 269–70

  25 REICH CHANCELLERY AND REICHSTAG

  p. 370 ‘A blazing comet is extinguished’, BA-MA MSg2/3448, p. 15

  p. 370 ‘As a first priority…’, BA-MA MSg2/1283, p. 32

  p. 371 ‘hollow charge’, etc., Karen Meyer, pp. 47–83

  p. 371 ‘between around fifty and 15,000’, Amt für die Erfassung der Kriegsopfer, 28 July 1947; I am also grateful to Dietmar Arnold for his comments on the debate

  p. 372 bouncing grenade, Belyaev, conversation, 25 July 2000

  p. 372 ‘smiling like obedient dogs’, Klochkov, conversation, 25 July 2000

  p. 372 ‘We propose that you surrender…’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, pp. 458–9

  p. 373 ‘Because this mission…’, Gall, conversation, 2 November 1999

  p. 375 ‘Typically German!’, Brettschneider’s account, permanent exhibition, Zitadelle Spandau

  p. 376 ‘general testing of…’, Operation Dragon’s Return, STIB, 28 January 1954, PRO DEFE 21/42, p. 4

  p. 378 ‘to liquidate a large group…’, TsAMO 236/2675/149, p. 276

  p. 378 25,000 men, NA RG 338 R–79, p. 49

  p. 378 ‘Was it really unquestioning…’, Horst Haufschildt, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 291

  p. 379 ‘A much loved leader’, ibid., p. 150

  p. 379 ‘What are you doing here…’, Reichhelm, conversation, 5 October 1999

  p. 379 ‘to be at the immediate disposal…’, BA-MA MSg2/1283, p. 34

  p. 380 ‘After we had been talking…’, Vadis to Beria, 7 May, GARF 9401/2/96, pp. 175–82

  p. 381 ‘The remains of glass ampoules…’, Vadis to Beria, 7 May, GARF 9401/2/96, pp. 175–82

  p. 381 ‘at the head of his troops’, Hamburg radio, Trevor-Roper, p. 188

  p. 384 ‘unpleasant suggestion’, Zhukov, iv, p. 272

  p. 384 Bärenfänger, Le Tissier, 1999, p. 186

  p. 384 Ernst Himmler, Beier, conversation, 9 October 2001

  p. 384 ‘There was blood everywhere…’, Loewe, conversation, 9 October 2001

  p. 385 ‘Among the crews killed…’, Zhukov, iv, p. 272

  p. 385 ‘The Führer is dead’, Beier, conversation, 9 October 2001

  26 THE END OF THE BATTLE

  p. 386 ‘What I experienced…’, Rürup (ed.), 1997, p. 184

  p. 387 ‘We’re sparing these…’, Prinz-Albrecht-Gelände permanent exhibition

  p. 388 ‘Sergeant Gorbachov…’, V. S. Antonov, ‘Poslednie dni voiny’, ViZh, No. 7, July 1987

  p. 388 fate of Constanze Manzialy, Musmanno, p. 39

  p. 389 ‘Come around to the back’, Lothar Rühl, quoted Steinhoff et al. (eds.), p. 434

  p. 389 arrest of Günsche, Rzhevskaya, 1986, p. 212

  p. 389 Berzarin’s promise of award, Rzhevskaya, 2000, p. 286

  p. 389 ‘My comrades and I…’, Sulkhanishvili, conversation, 12 October 2000

  p. 390 ‘shrunk in size…’, Sulkhanishvili, conversation, 12 October 2000

  p. 390 cigarette case and Hitler’s badge, Vadis to Beria, 7 May, GARF 9401/2/96, pp. 175–82

  p. 390 ‘They did not let me go down’, Rzhevskaya, 2000, p. 295

  p. 390 ‘the Germans had buried…’, Zhukov, iv, p. 275

  p. 391 ‘exemplary’, Erna Flegel debrief by OSS, 23 November

  p. 391 repeat interrogations of bunker witnesses, Rzhevskaya, conversation, 28 October 2001

  p. 391 Colonel Haller, TsAMO 233/2374/93, pp. 458–9

  p. 392 ‘post-mortal convulsions’, K. M. Simonov, Notebook No. 9, RGALI 1814/4/8

  p. 392 famine in Soviet Central Asia, see GARF 9401/2/95, pp. 57–62,92–6

  p. 393 ‘their blood group tattooed…’, Beria to Stalin, 20 November, GARF 9401/2/100, p. 492

  p. 393 denunciations, Belyaev, conversation, 25 July 2000

  p. 393 ‘But surely you aren’t…’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 240

  p. 393 ‘Prisoners’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 242

  p. 394 ‘They don’t look at anyone…’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 245

  p. 394 ‘huge and powerful’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p.·243

  p. 395 ‘the colossal scale…’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 244

  p. 395 reinstating the military salute, Genscher, conversation, 4 September 2000

  p. 395 ‘It’s over!’, Peter Rettich diary, 3 May, Reichhelm papers

  p. 396 negotiations at Stendal, Edelsheim, BA-MA MSg1/236 and Reichhelm, NA RG 338 B-606

  p. 396 ‘It is thanks to our Führer!’, Robert Ohlendorf, quoted Ramm, 1994,

  p. 174

  p. 397 9,139 Hiwis, NA RG 338 R–79, p. 58

  p. 397 5,000 Hiwis reach the Twelfth Army, Genscher, conversation, 4 September 2000

  p. 397 ‘Nix SS…’, Herbert Fuchs, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 256

  p. 397 ‘Quite a few people…’, Reichhelm, conversation, 5 October 1999

  p. 397 ‘The real problem’, Humboldt, conversation, 11 October 1999

  p. 399 ‘Stalin’s system needed…’, Rzhevskaya, 2000, p. 277

  p. 400 ‘the sort used…’, Rzhevskaya, conversation, 28 October 2001

  p. 400 ‘accepted with great satisfaction’, Eisenhower to Antonov, 10 May, ΝA RG334/Entry 309/Box 2

  p. 401 Bradley and Konev, Bradley, p. 551

  p. 401 ‘tankists of 25th Tank Corps…’, Yashechkin, reported to GLAV-PURKKA, RGASPI 17/125/310

  p. 401 Vlasov hiding under blankets, Konev, p. 230

  p. 402 ‘on behalf of the Soviet…’, Eisenhower to Antonov, 8 May, NA RG334/Entry 309/Box 2

  p. 403 ‘We celebrated victory…’, Yuri Gribov, ‘Igral nam ν Brandenburge grammofon’, Stroki’s velikoi voiny, Moscow, 2000

  p. 403 ‘The first toast to victory’, Inozemtsev, p. 206

  p. 403 ‘a fat, small colonel’, K. M. Simonov Diary, Notebook No. 9, RGALI, 1814/4/8

  p. 404 ‘in a two-storey building…’, TsAMO 233/2356/5804, pp. 155–6

  p. 404 ‘they jumped
up…’, K. M. Simonov Diary, Notebook No. 9, RGALI, 1814/4/8

  27 VAE VICTIS!

  p. 406 2,389 kilos in gold, GARF 9401/2/96, p. 15

  p. 406 police forensic laboratories, RGVA 32925/1/100, p. 293

  p. 406 deportation of V–2 rocket scientists, Siemens engineers etc., see PRO DEFE 41/116, and Counter Intelligence Corps ΝA 319/22/XE169886 and NA 319/22/XE 257685

  p. 406 ‘Socialism cannot benefit itself, Fedoseyev notes

  p. 407 ‘the systematic destruction…’, report 2e Bureau, 21 April, SHAT 7 Ρ 128

  p. 407 ‘two dachshunds (nice fellows)’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 241

  p. 407 ‘twenty unique shotguns…’, Abakumov to Stalin, 10 January 1948, ‘Portrety bez retushi’, Voennye Arkhivy Rossii, No. 1, 1993, p. 189

  p. 408 ‘Come on, take it!’, K. M. Simonov Diary, Notebook No. 8, RGALI 1814/4/7

  p. 408 ‘Uhr schon Kamerad’, Toscano-Korvin diary-letter, 7 July, BZG-S

  p. 408 looting by Russian boys, RGVA 32925/1/121, pp. 61,93

  p. 408 ‘considerable amount…’, Murphy to State Department, NA 740.0011 EW/4–2445

  p. 409 ‘Even the Bishop of Munster’, NA 740.0011 EW5–145

  p. 409 Soviet officer and pistol, Zbarsky, p. 134

  p. 410 mothers saving daughters, Kardorff, p. 358, and Lewin, conversation, 14 October 1999

  p. 410 rape estimates, Dr Gerhard Reichling, and Charité and Kaiserin Auguste Victoria, quoted Sander and Johr, pp. 54, 59

  p. 410 ‘twenty-three soldiers…’, Kardorff, p. 358

  p. 410 ‘I must repress…’, Frau Irene Burchert, quoted Owings, p. 147

  p. 410 ‘That feeling…’, Juliane Hartmann, quoted Steinhoff et al. (eds.), p. 455

  p. 410 ‘All in all’, Anonymous, p. 102

  p. 411 ‘Afterwards, I had to…’, Hanna Gerlitz, quoted Steinhoff et al. (eds.), p.·459

  p. 411 ‘desexualization’ of prisoners, see Frank Biess, ‘The Protracted War’, GHI Bulletin, No. 28 (Spring 2001)

  p. 411 engagement broken off, Kardorff, p. 358

  p. 411 ‘You’ve turned into shameless bitches’, Anonymous, p. 202

  p. 411 daughter, mother and grandmother raped, Frau Regina Frankenfeld, quoted Owings, p. 405

  p. 412 ‘Go along, for God’s sake!…’, Anonymous, p. 66

  p. 412 ‘The thirteen-year-old Dieter Sahl’, Toscano-Korvin diary-letter, 7 July, BZG-S

  p. 412 ‘that German intelligence left…’, 16 June, RGVA 32925/1/121, p. 82

  p. 412 ‘Some members of the underground…’, 29 May, RGVA 32925/1/116, p. 428

  p. 412 ‘the enemy is prepared to use…’, 14 April, TsAMO 372/6570/68, pp. 17–20

  p. 412 penicillin and births in hospital, Sander and Johr, p. 17

  p. 412 ‘The Red Army is the most…’, 26 April, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 240

  p. 413 ‘to change their attitudes…’, RGVA 32925/1/100, p. 296

  p. 413 ‘Monsieur, I like your army…’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 244

  p. 413 ‘robbery’, ‘physical violence’ and ‘scandalous events’, RGVA 32925/1/297, pp. 30–31

  p. 414 ‘This scoundrel campaign…’, 5 October, RGASPI 17/125/316, p. 81

  p. 414 ‘First comes food…’, Kardorff, p. 364

  p. 414 ‘cigarette currency’, Werner, conversation, 15 October 1999

  p. 414 ‘occupation wives’, Naimark, p. 93

  p. 415 desertion of Red Army officers, OMGUS, NA, RG260 A2 B1 C3 Box 363

  p. 415 ‘Perhaps we women’, Kardorff, p. 341

  p. 415 ‘a conviction of total catastrophe’, Loewe, conversation, 10 October 2001

  p. 415 ‘by the docility and discipline of the people’, Zbarsky, p. 129

  p. 415 ‘with unquestioning obedience’, Beria to Stalin, GARF 9401/2/95, pp. 395–9

  p. 415 ‘respect for the powers that be’, Merezhko, conversation, 10 November 1999

  p. 416 ‘that leaders of fascist organizations…’, RGVA 32925/1/121, p. 89

  p. 416 ‘The Party Lives On!’, 7 May, RGVA 32925/1/121, p. 41

  p. 416 ‘an unknown number of bandits’, RGVA 38680/1/4, p. 43

  p. 416 ‘Klamottenberg’, Beier, conversation, 9 October 2001

  p. 416 ‘People were living with their fate’, Loewe, conversation, 9 October 2001

  p. 416 Grossdeutscher Rundfunk, Beier, conversation, 9 October 2001

  p. 417 ‘We had no idea what…’, Wolf, conversation, 14 July 2000

  p. 417 ‘naïve enough to hope…’, Wolf, 1997, p. 47

  p. 418 ‘Our frontoviki have…’, Wolf, 1998, p. 33

  p. 418 ‘Then came the experience…’, Wolf, conversation, 14 July 2000

  p. 418 ‘a scoundrel capable…’, Beria, p. 88

  p. 418 ‘an absolute order’, Wolf, conversation, 14 July 2000

  p. 418 ‘taboo themes’, Wolf, conversation, 14 July 2000

  p. 419 ‘burnt-out tanks…’, Kardorff, p. 356

  p. 419 Red Army rabbi, LA-B 3928

  p. 419 ‘Hamster-express’, ‘Zeitung in der Zeitung’, Freie Welt, July 1975, BA-MA MSg2/3626

  p. 419 ‘to secure the elimination…’, Beria to Stalin, GARF 9401/2/95, p. 374

  p. 420 East Prussian population reduced to 193,000, 16 June, GARF 9401/2/96, pp. 343–4

  p. 420 ‘in forests, peat bogs and canals…’, Caritas report, ΝA RG 260 OMGUS, Stack 390 41/7/5–6

  p. 420 fifteen NKVD regiments for Poland, Beria to Stalin, 22 June, GARF 9401/2/97, pp. 8–10

  28 THE MAN ON THE WHITE HORSE

  p. 421 ‘So, Ninka’, TsAMO 372/6570/68, quoted Senyavskaya, 1995, p. 191

  p. 422 ‘At that time…’, TsAMO 372/6570/78, pp. 30–32

  p. 422 ‘We don’t believe…’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 288

  p. 423 officers shot in the back in battle, Kubasov, conversation, 27 October 2001

  p. 423 ‘systematic anti-Soviet talk…’, RGVA 38686/1/26, p. 36

  p. 423 ‘systematically carried out…’, RGVA 32925/1/297, p. 28

  p. 423 ‘counter-revolutionary crimes’, GARF 9401/1a/165, pp. 181–3

  p. 423 ‘screened by NKVD…’, VOV, iv, pp. 191, n. 59, and 193, n. 65

  p. 423 Red Army generals sentenced, Bezborodova, p. 15

  p. 424 ‘long hours for artificial limbs…’, V. Kardin, quoted Senyavskaya, 2000, p. 95

  p. 424 ‘Wait until our boys…’, 12 July, letter from Jews of Rubtsovsk in Altai to chairman of Council of Nationalities of the USSR, RGASPI 17/125/310, p. 47

  p. 424 ‘by two anti-Semites…’, RGASPI 17/125/310, p. 50

  p. 425 ‘the nations of the Soviet Union’, quoted Werth, pp. 1001–2

  p. 425 ‘Our great genius…’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 83

  p. 426 ‘we have not yet found…’, ‘Zeitung in der Zeitung’, Freie Welt, July 1975, BA-MA MSg2/3626

  p. 426 Stalin and Hitler’s corpse, Rzhevskaya, 2000, pp. 292, 301

  p. 426 ‘I still ride…’, Zhukov, iv, pp. 297–8

  p. 428 ‘for outstanding service…’, BA-MA MSg2/3626

  p. 428 ‘Zhukov! Zhukov! Zhukov!’, Kazakova, conversation, 6 November 1999

  p. 429 ‘the mistaken developments since 1933’, Blumentritt interrogation, NA RG 338 B-338

  p. 429 ‘a perverted moral…’, 7 May, NA 740.0011 EW/5–1045

  p. 430 ‘residual Nazism’, SHAEF Psychological Warfare Division report, passed Murphy to State Department, NA 740.0011 EW/4–2445

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