The fall of berlin 1945, p.57
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       The Fall of Berlin 1945, p.57
 

           Antony Beevor

  p. 248 Saalborn to Bürgermeister of Woltersdorf, BLHA Pr. Br. Rep. 61A/443

  p. 248 ‘Well, we’ll have to start…’, Zhukov, iv, p. 224

  17 THE FÜHRER’S LAST BIRTHDAY

  p. 249 ‘with heartiest congratulations’, RGVA-SA 1355/4/11, p. 54

  p. 250 ‘I wondered whether he was mad’, Kardorff, p. 307

  p. 251 ‘disappointed by the cowardice…’, Speer interrogation, 22 May, NA 740.0011 EW/5–145

  p. 251 ‘Führer’s birthday’, GARF 9401/2/97, pp. 32–48

  p. 252 ‘It was horrible…’, Traudl Junge, quoted Sereny, p. 512

  p. 252 ‘Eva Braun and Dr Stumpfegger’, Bormann’s diary, GARF 9401/2/97, pp. 32–48

  p. 252 ‘a really foul trick’, letter of 19 April, quoted Gun, p. 247

  p. 252 ‘to keep the mystic legend…’, Brandt paper, ΝA RG319/22/XE 23 11 00

  p. 254 ‘She was always…’, Below, pp. 407–8

  p. 254 ‘We can already hear…’, letter to Herta Ostermayr, quoted Gun, p. 252

  p. 254 ‘Suddenly one remembers…’, Friday 20 April, Anonymous, p. 9

  p. 255 ‘the long-range artillery…’, Zhukov, iv, p. 250

  p. 255 ‘a historic task: to break into Berlin…’, TsAMO 233/2307/193, p. 88

  p. 256 ‘Comrade Rybalko’, TsAMO 236/2712/359, p. 35

  p. 256 recognition signals for meeting with Allied armies, TsAMO 132a/2642/38, pp. 14–15

  p. 256 ‘Personal to Comrades…’, quoted Erickson, p. 578

  p. 256 ‘Auffanglinier’, BA-MA RH19/XV/24, p. 119

  p. 256 ‘It was clear to us…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 18

  p. 257 ‘Then the tanks began firing…’, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 96

  p. 257 ‘Now we’ll let them have it’, ibid., p. 97

  p. 259 ‘The closer one gets to Berlin’, Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 240

  p. 259 ‘mostly by officers and men…’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 47

  p. 259 ‘It was all senseless’, Wuth, conversation, 10 October 1999

  p. 259 30th Guards Artillery Brigade, Klochkov, p. 77

  p. 260 ‘They returned the following…’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 722

  p. 260 ‘given chemical substances…’, RGVA 32891/1/125, p. 289

  p. 260 ‘hurl back’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 20

  p. 260 ‘to catch deserters and execute…’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 412

  18 THE FLIGHT OF THE GOLDEN PHEASANTS

  p. 261 ‘no man capable…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 17

  p. 261 ‘Werwolfs of Berlin and Brandenburg’, 24 April, NA RG 260 OMGUS, Stack 390 41/7/5–6 A2/S4

  p. 262 ‘What’s going on?’, Günsche interrogation, quoted Bezymenski, pp. 28–9

  p. 262 ‘For the rat Goebbels’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 255, and Zhukov, iv, p. 258

  p. 262 ‘the bloody god of war’, K. M. Simonov, Notebook No. 8, RGALI 1814/4/7

  p. 262 1.8 million shells, Zhukov, iv, p. 255

  p. 262 ‘cellar tribe’, Anonymous, pp. 13–16

  p. 263 ‘Du General?’, Kertz, conversation, 10 October 1999

  p. 263 Scharnhorst Division, Rettich war diary, Reichhelm papers

  p. 264 ‘a very bad feeling’, Lorenz, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 98

  p. 264 ‘See that you all get home…’, Tillery, quoted ibid., p. 40

  p. 265 ‘Due to the slowness…’, 21 April, TsAMO 233/2374/92, pp. 359–60

  p. 267 ‘three battalions and a few tanks’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 143

  p. 268 ‘The defence of Berlin…’, TsAMO 299/17055/4, p. 305

  p. 268 ‘twenty-four-hour-a-day…’, Zhukov, iv, p. 276

  p. 269 ‘a dirty, swampy little river’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 66

  p. 270 ‘Soviet shells exploding…’, Wallin, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 99

  p. 271 Konev’s order to the 28th Army, A. Luchinsky, ‘Na Berlin!’, ViZh, No. 5, May 1965

  p. 271 ‘completely surprised…’, NARG 338, P–136, p. 49

  p. 271 ‘as snow in the middle…’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 78

  p. 271 ‘At about five in the afternoon’, Rocolle, 1954, p. 87

  p. 272 ‘hearts raced in fear’, DRK-Schwester Ruth Schwarz, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 229

  p. 273 German stragglers from See-low Heights, RGVA 32925/1/130, p. 269

  p. 273 ‘On 22 April, a Red Army cook’, RGVA 32925/1/130, p. 275

  p. 273 ‘Everything is covered with flowers…’, Grossman papers, RGALI, 1710/3/51, p. 239

  p. 274 ‘Not a single woman…’, Anonymous, p. 21

  p. 276 ‘General Field Marshal Keitel’, extracts from notes of Jodl, TsAMO 233/2356/5804, pp. 201–3

  p. 276 ‘his mental sickness…’, Maizière, p. 106, and conversation, 9 October 1999

  p. 276 ‘Losses can never…’, quoted Trevor-Roper, p. 65

  p. 277 ‘the chiefs plan to get…’, ΝA 740.0011 EW/3–2245

  p. 277 ‘There exist in…’, NA RG59740.0011 EW/4–645

  p. 277 ‘superbly stocked’, Freytag von Loringhoven, conversation, 4 October 1999

  p. 277 ‘In the bunker’, Maizière, conversation, 9 October 1999

  p. 278 night of 22 April, Below, p. 411, and Traudl Junge, television interview

  p. 279 ‘Forgive me…’, letter of 22 April, original reproduced Gun, p. 176

  19 THE BOMBARDED CITY

  p. 280 ‘the battle a European significance’, diary Uffz. Heinrich V., 23 April, BZG-S

  p. 280 siege guns, Zhukov, iv, p. 255

  p. 281 ‘Desertion suddenly seems…’, Anonymous, p. 24

  p. 282 ‘real feeling of disintegration’, Beier, conversation, 9 October 2001

  p. 282 ‘to their impulses’, Kronika, pp. 98–9

  p. 282 ‘What a thing to die for’, Petersohn, conversation, 9 July 2000

  p. 283 rumour of Model’s arrest, NA740.0011 EW/4–2445

  p. 283 7th Department, TsAMO 233/2374/93, pp. 413,419

  p. 284 ‘Because the fascist clique…’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 414

  p. 284 ‘letter from the inhabitants…’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 415

  p. 285 ‘an outstanding…’, Reichhelm, conversation, 5 October 1999, and also Humboldt, conversation, 11 October 1999

  p. 285 ‘gravedigger of the army’, NA740.0011 EW/4–1045

  p. 285 ‘Soldaten der Armee Wenck!’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 28

  p. 285 ‘the Führer has issued orders…’, NA 740.0011 EW/4–2445

  p. 285 ‘So we made up…’, Humboldt, conversation, 11 October 1999

  p. 286 ‘Boys, you’ve got…’, Reichhelm papers, Das Letzte Aufgebot

  p. 286 ‘a feeling of loyalty…’, Genscher, conversation, 4 September 2000

  p. 286 ‘So about turn!’, Rettich diary, Reichhelm papers

  p. 286 ‘tragi-comedy’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 22

  p. 286 state of LVI Panzer Corps, Refior, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 24

  p. 287 Berlin defence figures, Willemer, ‘The German Defense of Berlin’, NA RG338, P136, p. 46

  p. 288 Speer’s journey to Berlin, NA 740.0011 EW/5–145

  p. 288 ‘the legends would be hard to create’, Speer interrogation, 22 May, ΝA 740.0011 EW/5–145

  p. 289 ‘My Führer! – In view of…’, quoted Trevor-Roper, p. 116

  p. 290 ‘a simple Munich girl…’, Sereny, p. 532

  p. 290 ‘Hermann is not with us…’, Gun, pp. 253–4

  20 FALSE HOPES

  p. 291 Krukenberg account, BA-MA MSg2/1283

  p. 291 SS ‘Charlemagne’, Fenet, conversation, 4 June 1999

  p. 293 ‘since he alone…’, ΝA 740.0011 EW/5–145

  p. 293 ‘The Reichsführer is no longer…’, Trevor-Roper, p. 103

  p. 294 Schulstrasse transit camp, Löwenstein, conversation, 14 July 2000

  p. 295 ‘a real International’, Konev, p. 150

  p. 295 ‘hundreds of bearded Russian…’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 239

  p. 295 ‘An old woman…’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 240

  p. 295
The Soviet Union has a right…’, ΝA RG218 JCS Box 15

  p. 296 US aircraft attacked, Antonov correspondence, NA RG334/Entry 309/Box 2

  p. 297 ‘they were licking [our] boots’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 53

  p. 297 ‘In the course of three hours’, V. S. Antonov, ‘Poslednie dni voiny’, ViZh, No. 7, July 1987

  p. 297 ‘It was a bloody…’, Ramm, 1994, p. 102

  p. 297 ‘Vlasov and his men are taking part’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 239

  p. 298 Beelitz-Heilstätten, DRK-Schwester Ruth Schwarz, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 229

  p. 299 ‘You’re the only one…’, BA-MA MSg2/1283, p. 11

  p. 299 conditions in the bunker, Freytag von Loringhoven, conversation, 4 October 1999, and Misch, 8 July 2000

  p. 300 ‘Another officer…’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 361

  p. 300 ‘surprised the Berliners immensely’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 78

  p. 300 ‘abnormal phenomena’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 362

  p. 300 ‘small babushka’, Sulkhanishvili, conversation, 12 October 2000

  p. 300 ‘impersonal violence of war itself’, Glenn Gray, pp. 66–7

  p. 300 ‘substitutes for the defeat of an enemy’, Naimark, p. 70

  p. 300 waves of violence, ibid., p. 83

  p. 301 Shulzhenok, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 333

  p. 301 ‘What contradicts our idea…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 240

  p. 301 ‘Ziegler had secret orders…’, BA-MAMSg1/976, p. 24

  p. 302 ‘Meine Herren, alies Gute!’, Roman Burghart, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 104

  p. 302 ‘laid on a blood-smeared table…’, Wallin, quoted ibid., p. 108

  p. 302 Krukenberg account, BA-MA MSg2/1283

  p. 302 ‘SS traitors extending the war!’, Wallin, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 103

  p. 303 ‘The silence which followed…’, BA-MA N65/126

  p. 304 ‘The situation must improve’, TsAMO 233/2356/5804, pp. 201–3

  p. 304 ‘a self-deception bordering…’, BA-MA N65/126, p. 165

  p. 304 ‘General Eisenhower desires…’, 25 April, Deane to Antonov, NA RG334/Entry 309/Box 2

  p. 305 Deutschlandsender, NA RG59740.0011 EW/5–1045

  p. 307 Tully and Irwin, NA RG334/Entry 309/Box 6

  p. 307 ‘On the walls…’, Serov via Beria to Stalin, 25 April, GARF 9401/2/95, pp. 304–10

  p. 308 ‘the attitude of Red Army troops…’, Beria to Stalin, GARF 9401/2/95, pp. 317–28

  21 FIGHTING IN THE CITY

  p. 310 ‘There they stand…’, Anonymous, p. 28

  p. 311 ‘Take up the weapons…’, Diary Uffz. Heinrich V., 27 April, BZG-S

  p. 312 ‘We had no idea…’, Petersohn, conversation, 9 July 2000

  p. 314 ‘Tag, Russki!’, Boeseler, conversation, 7 July 2000

  p. 314 ‘kulaks and landowners’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 747

  p. 314 ‘wax-like faces wreathed…’, Anonymous, p. 29

  p. 315 ‘almost without antiseptic…’, Rocolle, 1954, p. 73

  p. 315 Volkssturm weapons, Toscano-Korvin diary-letter, 7 July, BZG-S p. 315 ‘Berliner! Hold on…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 28

  p. 315 ‘At the moment I am…’, Pyotr Mitrofanovich Sebelev, quoted Shindel (ed.), p. 161

  p. 316 ‘casserole’, Johannes Steinhoff, quoted Steinhoff et al. (eds.), p. 245

  p. 316 ‘new tactic’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 78

  p. 317 3rd Shock Army anti-aircraft guns, Nikolai Vasiliev, ‘Krasnyi tsvet pobedy’, in Vsem smertyam nazlo, Moscow, 2000

  p. 317 ‘Offensive operations carried…’, SHAT 7 Ρ 163

  p. 317 sections of railway line with dynamite, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 78

  p. 318 ‘We didn’t have time…’, anonymous interview, 5 November 1999

  p. 318 ‘frequent cases of mutual firing…’, A. Luchinsky, ‘Na Berlin!’, ViZh, No. 5, May 1965

  p. 319 ‘Poor inner city’, Eva Reuss in Schwerin, p. 166

  p. 319 ‘Now we should be scared…’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 241

  p. 320 ‘thunderbolts from the sky’, Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 240

  p. 320 ‘Old frontline hares’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 25

  p. 320 ‘Your proposal is perfectly all right…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 25

  p. 321 tradition of commandant of city, Konev, p. 236

  p. 321 ‘The commandant of Berlin…’, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 240

  p. 322 ‘the Americans could cross…’, BA-MAMSg2/1283, p. 22

  p. 325 Thiessen and Bewilogua, AGMPG II. Abt., Rep. 1A, A2. IA 9/-Havemann

  p. 326 Haus Dahlem, Rocolle, 1992, pp. 108–9

  p. 326 ‘the horrors of the Middle Ages’, Marianne Reinold, in Bollmann et al., p. 67

  p. 326 events in Dahlem, see also Naimark, p. 82

  p. 327 ‘violence under the pretext of revenge’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 706

  p. 327 ‘When we broke into Berlin’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 650

  p. 327 ‘That? Well, it certainly…’, Anonymous, p. 49

  22 FIGHTING IN THE FOREST

  p. 328 ‘Who would ever…’, diary of Peter Rettich diary, Reichhelm papers

  p. 328 ‘Blast the Russians away!’, Ruth Schwarz, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 231

  p. 329 ‘It was fought…’, Rettich diary, Reichhelm papers

  p. 329 civilian casualties in Beelitz, Beelitzer Heimatverein, p. 18

  p. 329 footnote: Soviet estimate of Busse’s army, Konev, p. 181, Erickson, p. 592

  p. 329 40,000 German troops in forest, NA RG 338 R–79, p. 59

  p. 330 ‘pushing to the west like a caterpillar’, quoted NA RG 338 R–79, p. 14 p. 330 ‘to decide for himself…’, quoted NA RG 338 R–79, p. 19

  p. 330 ‘to block all the forest roads leading from east to west’, TsAMO 684/492483/1

  p. 331 ‘without information about…’, A. Luchinsky, ‘Na Berlin!’, ViZh, No. 5, May 1965

  p. 331 ‘The Führer has ordered…’, ‘The Führer in Berlin…’, NA RG 338 R–79, pp. 37–8

  p. 332 ‘If the first attempts…’, TsAMO 236/2675/267, p. 186

  p. 332 wounded crushed by tank tracks, Lindner, conversation, 10 October 2001

  p. 333 ‘For this they paid…’, A. Luchinsky, ‘Na Berlin!’, ViZh, No. 5, May 1965

  p. 334 ‘2,459 attack missions…’, Konev, p. 182

  p. 334 ‘a patchwork quilt of corpses’, Baumgart, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 70

  p. 334 ‘It’s already been five days…’, TsAMO 236/2675/267, p. 189

  p. 335 SS with panzerfaust in cellar, Buhl, conversation, 10 October 2001

  p. 335 ‘I never suspected…’, Jürgs diary (8 May retrospective), quoted Ramm, 1994, pp. 159–60

  p. 335 ‘Tanks rolled down…’, quoted Ramm, 1995, p. 25

  p. 336 ‘Get up!’, Kleint, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 306

  p. 336 ‘In that place, there was…’, K. M. Simonov, Notebook No. 9, RGALI, 1814/4/8, p. 80

  p. 337 ‘The remains of the destroyed…’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 76

  p. 337 ‘more than 3,000–4,000’, Konev, pp. 181–2

  p. 337 Fieseler Storch from Army Group Vistula, Eismann, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 138

  p. 338 ‘to send these children…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 143

  p. 338 ‘disobedience and unsoldierly weakness’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 143

  23 THE BETRAYAL OF THE WILL

  p. 340 61st Rifle Division, A. Luchinsky, ‘Na Berlin!’, ViZh, No. 5, May 1965

  p. 340 ‘Rosly, who is usually…’, V. S. Antonov, ‘Poslednie dni voiny’, ViZh, No. 7, July 1987, and TsAMO 301sd/295514/1, p. 158

  p. 340 ‘One had a panoramic…’, quoted Schultz-Naumann, p. 178

  p. 340 ‘Stand fast, fight fanatically’, 26 April, 04.08 hours, GARF 9401/2/102, pp. 13–17

  p. 341 ‘I consider your proposed…’, 26 April, NA RG218 JCS Box 15 File 94

  p. 341 ‘Himmler and Jodl stop…’, GARF 9401/2/97, pp. 32–48

  p. 342 Fegelein execution, Freytag von Loringhoven, conversation, 4 O
ctober 1999

  p. 342 ‘A traitor must…’, quoted Trevor-Roper, p. 152

  p. 343 ‘in spite of all…’, ibid., pp. 156–7

  p. 344 ‘An erotic fever…’, Gun, p. 273

  p. 346 ‘Salon Kitty’, Salon Kitty, see Peter Norden, Munich, 1970, and documentary film ‘Meine Oma hatte einen Nazi-Puff’ by Rosa von Praunheim about Kitty’s grandson, Jochen Mattei

  p. 346 ‘this grey, frightening…’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 83

  p. 346 ‘that very evening’, Rocolle, 1954, p. 69

  p. 347 Shatilov and Goebbels, Klochkov, conversation, 25 July 2000

  p. 347 ‘looking at us maliciously…’, Shatilov, ‘U sten Reikhstaga’, in Vsem smertyam nazlo, Moscow, 2000

  p. 347 checking Moabit for explosives, Sulkhanishvili, conversation, 10 February 2001

  p. 347 ‘soon learned what to expect’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 78

  p. 349 Reichstag assault, S. Neustroev, ‘Shturm Reikhstaga’, ViZh, No. 5, May 1960, pp. 42–5

  p. 349 katyusha launchers on lengths of railway line, Belyaev, conversation, 25 July 2000

  p. 349 ‘Greetings from the front’, quoted Shindel (ed.), p. 151

  p. 350 ‘Sunday 29 April’, GARF 9401/2/97, pp. 32–48

  p. 350 Signals intercepted, 29 April, TsAMO 233/2356/5804, p. 147

  p. 351 ‘Herr General, I do not want…’, Freytag von Loringhoven, conversation, 4 October 1999

  p. 351 departure of Weiss, Freytag and Boldt, Freytag von Loringhoven, conversation, 4 October 1999

  p. 351 assault on Prinz-Albrechtstrasse, V. S. Antonov, ‘Poslednie dni voiny’, ViZh, No. 7, July 1987

  p. 352 ‘fed from above’, Krukenberg, BA-MA MSg2/1283, p. 30

  p. 352 empty faces, Weisz, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 106

  p. 352 ‘descent into hell’, Bereznyak, quoted ibid., p. 115

  p. 352 ‘like a single soldier with a rifle’, Fenet, conversation, 19 May 1999

  p. 352 ‘The Communists must be…’, Fenet, conversation, 19 May 1999

  p. 352 ‘But Comrade Kukharev…’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 70

  24 FÜHRERDÄMMERUNG

  p. 354 ‘The order has come through…’, Shatilov, ‘U sten Reikhstaga’, in Vsem smertyam nazlo, Moscow, 2000

  p. 355 ‘There’s a grey building…’, Vasily Subbotin, How Wars End, p. 131

  p. 355 ‘Hieronymus Bosch landscape’, Kardorff, p. 175

  p. 356 bombardment of Reichstag, S. Neustroev, ‘Shturm Reikhstaga’, ViZh, No. 5, May 1960, pp. 42–5

  p. 356 ‘to have escaped…’, BA-MA MSg2/3448, p. 10

 
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