The fall of berlin 1945, p.56
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       The Fall of Berlin 1945, p.56

           Antony Beevor
 

  p. 154 ‘Hitlerjunge Quex’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 75

  p. 154 ‘mutual respect…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 62

  p. 155 ‘In the evening…’, GARF 9401/2/97, pp. 32–48

  p. 155 ‘on the grounds…’, IfZ MA 127/2, p. 13,024

  p. 155 ‘dangerous’, and Italian forced labourers, see Gellately, pp. 237–8

  p. 156 ‘eliminating all further possibility…’, IMT, xli, pp. 430–31

  p. 156 ‘This time you will…’, quoted Sereny, pp. 485–6

  p. 156 ‘I have reports that…’, Speer interrogation, 22 May, ΝA 740.0011 EW/5–145

  p. 157 ‘lose his head’, Sereny, p. 491

  p. 157 ‘impossible to deny the hope…’, Speer interrogation, 22 May, NA 740.0011 EW/5–145

  p. 157 abortion instruction, IfZ MA 127/2, pp. 13,042–3

  p. 158 Speer and Kinzel, Speer interrogation, 22 May, NA 740.0011 EW/5–145

  p. 158 ‘in our eyes…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 92

  p. 159 ‘Wann kommt der Russe?’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 76

  p. 159 ‘a cheerful market woman…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 72

  p. 160 ‘Der 800,000 Mann-Plan’, IfZ MA 305

  p. 160 ‘It was quite…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 116

  p. 160 ‘with Dr Kaltenbrunner’, GARF 9401/2/97, pp. 32–48

  p. 160 Kaltenbrunner and Darius, 15 March, BA-B, R55/1394, p. 195

  p. 161 ‘a companion in suffering’, Tillery, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 27

  p. 161 ‘Life is like a child’s…’, Gall, conversation, 2 November 1999

  p. 161 ‘gemütlich’ bunker, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 27

  p. 162 ‘a really crazy type’, Tillery, quoted ibid., p. 29

  p. 163 ‘For once “soldier’s luck”…’, Laudan, quoted ibid., p. 52

  p. 164 ‘Officers have two opinions…’, TsAMO 236/2675/339, p. 63

  p. 164 ‘To be an officer’, TsAMO 236/2675/339, p. 63

  11 PREPARING THE COUP DE GRCE

  p. 165 ‘The Berlin operation…’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 29

  p. 165 4,000 men each, Erickson, p. 476

  p. 165 1,030,494 transferred from Gulag by 5 September 1944, GARF 1914/1/1146, p. 21

  p. 166 State Defence Committee, Prikaz No. 7942 ss of 29 March, also GARF 8131/38/236, pp. 34–5

  p. 166 ‘a dog’s death for dogs’, Merridale, p. 266

  p. 166 ‘redeem their guilt…’, Sulkhanishvili, conversation, 12 October 2000

  p. 166 ‘soldiers who were Soviet citizens…’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, pp. 11–13

  p. 167 ‘Each day I spent…’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 685

  p. 167 ‘Is it true…’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, pp. 700–701

  p. 167 ‘Bad supervision…’, RGVA 38686/1/20, p. 21

  p. 168 ‘these [curtains] must be removed…’, 7 April, RGVA 32925/1/100, p. 174

  p. 168 ‘Checking Fighting Fitness for Battle’, RGVA 36860/1/16

  p. 168 ‘They regarded it quite…’, Senyavskaya, 2000, p. 236, n. 50

  p. 168 ‘This happens…’, RGVA 38686/1/20, p. 26

  p. 168 ‘One mistake…’, Sulkhanishvili, conversation, 16 June 2001

  p. 169 ‘Red Army soldier…’, Werth, pp. 964, 965

  p. 169 ‘Look how the Germans…’, Eugene Schirinkine, 31 July, SHAT 7 Ρ 128

  p. 169 ‘Our soldiers got…’, Gall, conversation, 2 November 1999

  p. 169 ‘They put us in a camp…’, TsAMO 236/2675/267, pp. 67–8

  p. 170 ‘revenge score’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 24

  p. 170 ‘There was a big slogan…’, Kazakova, conversation, 6 November 1999

  p. 171 analysis of letters, Gall, conversation, 2 November 1999

  p. 171 ‘Can only be used…’, KA-FU, EI: 18, Vol. 6

  p. 171 chemical weapons, RGVA 32891/1/384, p. 19

  p. 171 ‘the weapons of despair’, Donovan to Secretary of State, 1 April, NA 740.0011 EW/4–145

  p. 171 ‘argued for chemical warfare’, Speer interrogation, 22 May, NA 740.0011 EW/5–145

  p. 172 panzerfaust trials, Belyaev, conversation, 29 July 2000

  12 WAITING FOR THE ONSLAUGHT

  p. 173 ‘Yesterday’, Major Juhlin-Dannfel, 4 April, KA-FU, EI: 18, Vol. 6

  p. 174 ‘Every Bolshevik…’, report 9 April, SHAT 7 Ρ 102

  p. 174 ‘Every male…’, report 9 April, SHAT 7 Ρ 102

  p. 174 ‘We know the plans…’, Staatssekretär Dr Naumann, BA-MA RH19/XV/9a, p. 94

  p. 175 ‘to that – exclusively…’, NA RG260 OMGUS, Stack 390 41/7/5–6 A2/S4

  p. 176 ‘We Germans are not a nation…’, Anonymous, p. 126

  p. 176 ‘We believe in victory…’, Kleine and Stimpel, p. 9

  p. 176 ‘Heil Hitler!’ report 2e Bureau, 21 April, SHAT 7 Ρ 128

  p. 177 ‘thought to defending…’, Haider, NA RG338 Ms P-136

  p. 177 ‘There are no children…’, BA-MA MSg1/976

  p. 177 ‘Evacuation…’, Oberst i.G Hans Refior, BA-MA MSg1/976

  p. 178 ‘short-sightedness, bureaucracy…’, Oberst i.G Hans Refior, BA-MA MSg1/976

  p. 178 ‘Muttis’ Refior, BA-MA MSg1/976

  p. 178 ‘a sense of duty’, NA RG338 Ms P-136

  p. 179 ‘masterpiece of…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 3

  p. 179 ‘Arbeitsunlustig’, RGVA-SA 1367/1/218

  p. 179 ‘Those madmen in Berlin…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 15

  p. 179 ‘The Ninth Army…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 15

  p. 180 ‘The Führer once coined…’, Goebbels speech, 20 February, BA-B R55/916, p. 91

  p. 180 Schmidtke, conversation, 15 July 2000

  p. 181 ‘I swear that…’, IfZ MA 485, p. 20,755

  p. 181 ‘deciphering…’, ‘There is an atmosphere…’, KA-FU, EI: 18, Vol. 6

  p. 182 Baumgart, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 65

  p. 182 Volkshandgranate 45, SHAT 7 Ρ 102

  p. 183 ‘clever eyes’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 100

  p. 183 General Bunyachenko, Fröhlich, p. 256

  p. 183 ‘better purposes’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 100, and BA-MA N53/76, p. 17

  p. 184 200th Rifle Division, N.M. Ramanichev, ‘Iz opyta peregruppirovki army pri podgotovke Berlinskoi operatsii’, ViZh, No. 8, 1979

  p. 184 ‘would only get…’, Klochkov, p. 72

  p. 184 ‘Some deserters seize carts from…’, 7 April, RGVA 38686/1/21P.40

  p. 184 355 deserters, RGVA 32891/1/120, p. 250

  p. 184 ‘Many soldiers…’, RGVA 32925/1/100, p. 184

  p. 185 ‘barely one half…’, Beria to Stalin, GARF 9401/2/95, pp. 253–68

  p. 185 stragglers, 11 April, RGVA 32925/1/130, p. 240

  p. 185 ‘Hello Papa, Mama…’, quoted Shindel (ed.), pp. 158–9

  p. 186 ‘Our advance is too slow…’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 331

  p. 186 ‘Komsomolets’, TsAMO 236/2675/440, pp. 6–8

  p. 186 ‘all Communists have a duty…’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 652

  p. 186 Artillery regiments, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 652

  p. 186 ‘the local population…’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 695

  p. 187 ‘a pile of stones’, Inozemtsev, p. 196

  p. 187 ‘Encircled soldiers…’, RGVA 38680/1/3, p. 68

  p. 187 ‘The aviation is…’, Inozemtsev, p. 196

  p. 188 ‘A bronze Bismarck…’, ibid., p. 201

  p. 188 the hospital ship Goya, Duffy, p. 291

  p. 188 ‘On Ninth Army…’, BA-MA RH19/XV/9a, p. 97

  p. 188 ‘Führer expects…’, BA-MA RH19/XV/9a, p. 207

  p. 188 ‘the Führer is instinctively…’, BA-MA RH19/XV/9a, p. 221

  p. 189 ‘The concert took us…’, Below, p. 409

  p. 189 Hitler Youth and cyanide capsules, Sereny, p. 507

  p. 189 ‘Order of the Day’, BA-MA RH19/XV/9D, p. 34

  p. 189 ‘There was terror…’, Senyavskaya, 2000, p. 275

  13 AMERICANS ON THE ELBE

  p. 190 ‘learning English…’, captured letter, Willi Klein to Lance Corp
oral Hans Gerl, quoted Ehrenburg, Krasnaya Zvezda, 25 November 1944

  p. 190 ‘Germany had lost…’, Papen interrogation, NA 740.0011 EW/4–2445

  p. 191 ‘Alex, where are…’, Boiling, quoted Ryan, p. 229

  p. 191 ‘Bolsheviks near Vienna…’, GARF 9401/2/97, pp. 32–48

  p. 191 massacres in the Leipzig area, report of Captain Claude Merry, 28 April, SHAT 8 Ρ 22

  p. 192 ‘On the basis of findings…’, report 8 March, ΝA 740.0011 EW/3–845

  p. 192 ‘No speeding…’, SHAT 8 Ρ 27

  p. 192 Operation Plunder, Elliott, pp. 121, 125, 143

  p. 193 ‘Monty was very stuffy…’, anonymous conversation, 30 December 2000

  p. 193 ‘a life and death struggle…’, Elliott, p. 12

  p. 194 ‘American tankists…’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 11 April, p. 3

  p. 194 ‘conquering with cameras’, ΝA 740.0011 EW/4–1345

  p. 194 ‘arrange for an orderly…’, NA 740.0011 EW/3–2745

  p. 195 ‘there is no evidence…’, NA 740.0011 EW/4–2345

  p. 196 ‘The interrogation of various…’, report of 10 April, SHAT 7 Ρ 102

  p. 196 ‘Deutschland, dein…’, Kardorff, p. 306

  p. 196 ‘Khvatit’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 11 April, p. 3

  p. 197 ‘were not refusing…’, ‘politically harmful’, see Leonid Reshin, ‘Tovarisch Ehrenburg uproshchaet’, Novoe Vremya, No. 8, 1994

  p. 197 ‘by promising immunity…’, Ehrenburg, pp. 176, 177

  p. 197 ‘Comrade Ehrenburg Oversimplifies’, ‘Tovarisch Ehrenburg uproshchaet’ Pravda, 14 April

  p. 198 ‘Your wife may get it…’, Abakumov to Stalin, 29 March, quoted Reshin, Novoe Vremya, No. 8, 1994

  p. 198 ‘that we should be ruthless…’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, pp. 360–61

  p. 199 ‘What was surprising’, Soyuz veteranov zhurnalistiki, p. 447

  p. 199 ‘In connection with…’, GARF 9401/2/95, pp. 31–5, and Serov to Beria, 19 April, GARF 9401/2/95, p. 91

  p. 199 43,000 Polish soldiers from Gulag, GARF 1914/1/1146

  p. 199 ‘W Sibir ili w Armiju?’, Andrzej Rey, quoted Gerhard Gnauck in ‘Wie die Horden Dschingis Khans’, Die Welt, 8 May 2001, p. 31

  p. 200 ‘extremely rude…’, ‘der Katastrophengeneral’, interrogation 8 April of Lieutenant General von Oriola of XIII Corps, 2e Bureau, 21 April, SHAT 7 Ρ 128

  p. 201 ‘You’re coming…’, Reichhelm, conversation, 5 October 1999

  p. 202 ‘along and either side…’, unpublished MS, diary of Peter Rettich, battalion commander, Scharnhorst Division, Twelfth Army, Reichhélm papers

  p. 202 ‘no other possibility but to surrender…’, Reichhelm, conversation, 5 October 1999, and Humboldt, conversation, 11 October 1999

  p. 202 ‘the Ninth Army has occupied…’, SHAEF daily report on Allied Operations, SHAT 8 Ρ 19

  p. 203 ‘future division of Germany…’, Eisenhower, p. 43

  p. 203 ‘Soldiers and officers’, Maizière, conversation, 9 October 1999

  p. 204 ‘Where in the hell…’, quoted Ryan, p. 261

  p. 204 ‘My Führer, I congratulate you!’, Trevor-Roper, pp. 89–90

  p. 204 ‘At the moment…’, BA-MA RH19/XV/9D, p. 34

  p. 204 ‘rocking like a ship’, Loewe, conversation, 9 October 2001

  p. 205 ‘A whole world…’, Kardorff, pp. 306–7

  14 EYE OF BATTLE

  p. 206 2.5 million men etc., Sovetskaya voennaya entsiklopediya, Vol. i, Moscow, 1990, p. 383

  p. 206 medals stripped from 20th Panzergrenadier Division, VOV, iii, p. 272

  p. 206 ‘During the night…’, V. Makarevsky, ‘17-ya motorinzhenernaya brigada ν Berlinskoi operatsii’, ViZh, No. 4, April 1976

  p. 207 ‘Active Komsomol members…’, TsAMO 236/2675/440, p. 76

  p. 207 ‘There will be no pity’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 240

  p. 207 ‘transmitting in clear…’, TsAMO 236/2675/440, p. 192

  p. 207 no sub-units allowed to use the radio, RGVA 32891/1/160

  p. 207 wavelengths and codes, RGVA 32891/1/160, p. 232

  p. 207 ‘morally and politically unstable’, TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 454

  p. 207 speaking against collective farms, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 314

  p. 208 Heinrici order, BA-MA RH 19 XV/9b, p. 42

  p. 208 ‘Many wanted to be wounded…’, Kertz, conversation, 11 October 1999

  p. 208 ‘You can’t imagine’, TsAMO 236/2675/336, p. 57

  p. 209 ‘We have to hold…’, TsAMO 233/2374/93 p. 411

  p. 209 ‘almost peaceful…’, Wust, conversation, 10 October 1999

  p. 209 ‘rabbit-hearted’, IfZ MA 127/2, p. 12,949

  p. 210 ‘The keys of the city…’, Vsevolod Vishnevsky, RGALI 1038/1/1804

  p. 210 newspaper reports, contradiction by TASS, see Pravda, 25 April

  p. 211 ‘other matter’, ΝA RG334/Entry 309/Box 2

  p. 211 ‘Some of them shaded…’, Klochkov, p. 72

  p. 211 ‘Greetings from the front’, Junior Lieutenant of Medical Service Abdul Aziz Babakhanov, Soyuz veteranov zhurnalistiki, p. 491

  p. 212 ‘The hurricane lamp is driving away darkness’, Senyavskaya, 1995, p. 181

  p. 213 ‘tortured to death…’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 314

  p. 213 ‘Liricheskoe’, quoted Senyavskaya, 1995, p. 101

  p. 214 ‘Soon we will return home…’, TsAMO 236/2675/440, p. 16

  p. 214 ‘It felt like a huge…’, Gall, conversation, 2 November 1999

  p. 214 ‘We warned all…’, Sulkhanishvili, conversation, 12 October 2000

  15 ZHUKOV ON THE REITWEIN SPUR

  p. 216 arrival of Zhukov, Merezhko, conversation, 10 November 1999

  p. 217 ‘The hands of the clock…’, Zhukov, iv, pp. 242–3

  p. 217 ‘A terrible thunder…’, Klochkov, p. 73

  p. 218 ‘Alarm!sofort… ’, Ramm, 1994, p. 33

  p. 218 ‘In a matter…’, Wagner, quoted ibid., p. 200

  p. 218 ‘In the field of view…’, Kleine and Stimpel, p. 39

  p. 218 ‘burning farmhouses…’, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 200

  p. 218 ‘Christ, the poor…’, Baumgart, quoted ibid., p. 67

  p. 218 ‘shavingofficers…’, SS Kriegsberichter Heinz Heering, BA-MA MSg2/3448, p. 6

  p. 219 ‘These men were sacrificed…’, Obersturmführer Helmut Schwarz, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 170

  p. 219 ‘It seemed that not…’, Zhukov, iv, p. 244

  p. 219 ‘Along the whole length…’, letter, Pyotr Mitrofanovich Sebelev, 2nd Sapper Bde, 16 April, quoted Shindel (ed.), p. 160

  p. 219 ‘the light was so blinding…’, Sulkhanishvili, conversation, 12 October 2000

  p. 220 ‘producing losses’, etc., TsAMO 233/2374/92, pp. 257–8

  p. 221 ‘Maximum Alert’, Schröder diary, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 177

  p. 222 ‘So you’ve underestimated…’, Zhukov, iii, p. 245

  p. 223 ‘His outstanding bravery…’, BA-MA RH19/XV/24, p. 36

  p. 224 ‘a dull, continuous…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 17

  p. 224 ‘women and girls stood…’, Boldt, pp. 108–9

  p. 226 ‘not a killing field…’, Harald Arndt, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 270

  p. 226 ‘We moved across terrain…’, Sebelev, Shindel (ed.), p. 160

  p. 226 ‘covered with the corpses…’, Klochkov, p. 73

  p. 226 ‘bad organization’, etc., TsAMO 233/2374/92, pp. 27–30

  p. 227 ‘in some regiments…’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, pp. 31–2

  p. 228 ‘became much more frequent’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 31

  p. 228 footnote: Medical personnel, Senyavskaya, 1995, p. 124

  p. 228 ‘How many matches were burnt?’, Senyavskaya, 2000, p. 227

  p. 229 ‘I was deeply…’, BA-MA MSg2/1096

  p. 229 ‘Berlin on the sixth day…’, VOV, iii, p. 270

  p. 229 ‘Are you sure that…’, Zhukov, iv, p. 247

  p. 230 ‘Even when I was…’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, pp.
47–8

  p. 230 ‘The god of war…’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 32

  p. 230 ‘At the fascist lair’, etc., TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 34

  p. 230 13th Army observation post, Konev, p. 91

  p. 231 ‘The assault boats were launched’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 35

  p. 231 ‘We had nowhere to hide’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 33

  p. 231 ‘Ivan don’t shoot, we are prison’, TsAMO 236/2675/336, pp. 6, 55–6

  p. 232 ‘unbearably slow’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 50

  p. 232 ‘Zhukov is not getting…’, TsAMO TsGV/70500/2, pp. 145–9, quoted Zhukov, iv, pp. 226–7

  p. 233 ‘[Antonov] said…’, NA RG334/Entry 309/Box 2

  16 SEELOW AND THE SPREE

  p. 235 ‘He was wearing a long…’, Sulkhanishvili, conversation, 12 October 2001

  p. 236 ‘distinctly uncultured’, Erickson, p. 569

  p. 236 ‘In the opinion of the infantry’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 355

  p. 236 ‘We infantry were once…’, Tillery, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 35

  p. 237 ‘completely shattered…’, BA-MA MSg2/1096, p. 4

  p. 237 ‘This is my artillery…’, BA-MA MSg2/1096, p. 5

  p. 237 attacks on Oder bridges, RGVA 32925/1/130, p. 259

  p. 238 German pilots’ suicide attacks, NA 740.0011 EW/4–2445

  p. 238 Leonidas squadron (2./II./KG 200), BA-MA MSg2/4429, pp. 1–44

  p. 239 ‘if the Germans…’, TsAMO 236/2675/149, p. 258

  p. 239 ‘How are you going to fire it?’, TsAMO 233/2374/194, p. 56

  p. 240 ‘No German town…’, BA-MA RH19/XV/9D, p. 131

  p. 240 ‘non-employed and those…’, BLHA Pr. Br. Rep. 61A/443

  p. 241 Nordland casualties, BA-MA RH 19 XV/9b, p. 62

  p. 243 ‘Today is the moment…’, BA-MA RH19/XV/9, p. 264

  p. 243 wounded soldier at Hermersdorf, Kleine and Stimpel, p. 35

  p. 243 ‘426 Soviet tanks’, Der Angriff, Nr. 92, 20 April

  p. 244 ‘And this is the army’, Kleine and Stimpel, pp. 35–6

  p. 244 ‘In the town of Gusow…’, TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 356

  p. 245 ‘a defence of the capital…’, BA-MA MSg1/976, p. 18

  p. 245 ‘Berlin would…’, Speer interrogation, 22 May, ΝA 740.0011 EW/5–145

  p. 245 ‘the sacrifice of children…’, BA-MA MSg2/1096, p. 6

  p. 246 ‘The Russians are eating…’, Martin Kleint, quoted Ramm, 1994, p. 296

  p. 246 ‘Der Iwan kommt’ ibid., p. 96

  p. 247 executions on Küstrin sector, Wuth, conversation, 10 October 1999 p. 247 SS to Schleswig-Holstein, BA-MA MSg2/3448, p. 6

 
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