Paris after the liberati.., p.50
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       Paris: After the Liberation 1944-1949, p.50

           Antony Beevor
 

  Teitgen, Pierre-Henri, Faites entrer le témoin suivant, Paris: Ouest France, 1988

  Thompson, Laura, Life in a Cold Climate: Nancy Mitford, London: Review, 2003

  Thorez, Maurice, Fils du peuple, Paris: Éditions sociales, 1949

  Tillon, Charles, On chantait rouge, Paris: Laffont, 1976

  Todd, Olivier, André Malraux: Une vie, Paris: Gallimard, 1999

  Train, Susan (ed.), Le Théâtre de la mode, Paris: Le May, 1990

  Triboulet, Raymond, Un Gaulliste de la IVe, Paris: Plon, 1958

  Veillon, Dominique, Le Franc-Tireur, Paris: Flammarion, 1978

  ——— La Mode sous l’Occupation, Paris: Payot, 1990

  Vendroux, Jacques, Souvenirs de famille et journal politique, Paris: Plon, 1974

  Verdès-Leroux, Jeannine, Au Service du parti: Le parti communiste, les intellectuels et la culture (1944–1956), Paris: Fayard-Minuit, 1983

  Vernier, Claude, Tendre Exil, Paris: La Découverte-Maspéro, 1983

  Vian, Boris, Manuel de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris: Chêne, 1974

  Villon, Pierre, Résistant de la première heure, Paris: Éditions sociales, 1983

  Voldman, Danielle, Attention Mines, 1944–1946, Paris: France-Empire, 1985

  Wall, Irwin, French Communism in the Era of Stalin, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983

  ——— The United States and the Makingof Post-War France (1945–1954), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991

  White, Edmund, Jean Genet, London: Chatto & Windus, 1993

  White, Sam, Sam White’s Paris, London: New English Library, 1983

  Wieviorka, Annette, Ils étaient juifs, résistants, communistes, Paris: Denoël, 1986

  ——— Déportation et génocide, Paris: Plon, 1992

  Wilson, Edmund, A Literary Chronicle of the Forties, London: W. H. Allen, 1951

  Wurmser, André, Fidèlement vôtre: Soixante ans de vie politique et littéraire, Paris: Grasset, 1979

  Ziegler, Philip, King Edward VIII, London: Collins, 1990

  Photographic Acknowledgements

  Illustrations 4,5,6 and 13 are reproduced by permission of Roger-Viollet; numbers 1 and 2 by Robert Doisneau, permission of Rapho; and numbers 12 and 16 by Willy Ronis, permission of Rapho. Number 3 is reproduced by permission of the Brassaï estate; 8 by permission of the Horst estate; 9 by permission of Keystone; 10 by permission of the Christian Dior Archive © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 1994; 11 by permission of Paris Match; 17 by permission of the André Ostier estate; and 19 by permission of the Service des Musées©DACS 1994.

  We are extremely grateful to the late Mrs David Bruce for kindly lending illustration 18. The remainder come from the albums of Lady Diana Cooper and her family, and if any photographer or archive owns the copyright of any of them, they should contact the publisher.

  * The idea for a union in fact came from a Frenchman, Jean Monnet, one of the most influential men of his age. This remarkable economic planner, then in London on an arms-purchasing mission, had already won the complete trust and respect of both Churchill and Roosevelt. He later inspired the Victory Plan in the United States.

  * When the Bishop of Arras was arrested after the Liberation, the British Embassy in Paris reported that ‘much surprise was expressed [by the Vatican] at the accusations against the Bishop of Arras since he has had the reputation at the Vatican of holding extreme democratic views’.

  * That day Leclerc’s division lost seventy-one men killed and 225 wounded; thirty-five armoured vehicles were destroyed, along with 117 other vehicles.

  * Estimates of the number killed vary greatly. Many seem too high. The Archives de la Ville de Paris record 2,873 Parisians, including inhabitants of the inner suburbs, killed during the month of August.

  * In the first opinion poll carried out since before the war, the Institut Français d’Opinion Publique found that per cent of its sample in Paris claimed to have been present that day. ‘C’est un plébiscite’ was a widespread comment.

  * One of Palewski’s bodyguards remarked that he had ‘more nicknames than a boules club in Marseilles’. The bodyguards knew him as ‘la Lavande’ from the overpowering strength of his eau de toilette. In Le Canard enchaîné he was known as ‘Lodoiska’ – the nickname given to the censorship; politicians called him ‘l’Empereur’, while the female secretaries, of whom the vast majority had no doubt received his energetic attentions, referred to himironically as ‘le beau Gaston’.

  * De Gaulle’s right-wing opponents, who claimed he was a Soviet puppet at this time, were much mistaken. The detailed briefing document for this visit, prepared by Dimitrov for Molotov and Stalin, leaves no doubt: ‘Although his outward attitude towards the [French] Communists is correct, he is prepared to use all possible means of hidden struggle against them.’

  * De Gaulle, however, was seen as relatively uninterested in the fate of the deportees. Marguerite Duras could not forgive him for having said on 3 April: ‘The days of tears are past. The days of glory have returned.’

  *In fact there were only ninety-one cases in Paris, and only seventy-seven Parisians died of it that year, half the figure of twenty years earlier.

  *MRP stood for ‘Mouvement Républicain Populaire’.Le Canard enchaîné pretended that it stood for ‘Machine à Ramasser les Pétainistes’.

  †Popova’s delegation of ten women was supposed to represent a cross-section of Soviet womanhood. It included a sculptress, a writer, a medical scientist, an actress, a professor, the director of the Lenin Library, a hero of the Soviet Union and a worker.

  * Teitgen makes no mention in his memoirs of his meeting with the American ambassador and protests vehemently, but unconvincingly, that de Gaulle exerted no influence in the handling of the Pétain case.

  * An agreement on sharing military intelligence was concluded in Paris on 3 July 1945 between General Bloch-Dassault (brother of the aircraft manufacturer Marcel Dassault) and Brigadier-General Betts of US military intelligence, but the United States handed over very little. They too were influenced by the British distrust from 1940, when the French insisted on keeping their antiquated code system, which the Germans had read with such ease.

  * Marie-Madeleine finally blew this agent’s cover in 1954, when the first itemon the agenda of the politburo meeting was to discuss the minutes of the latest meeting of the French National Defence Committee. She arranged for the publication of these minutes, which caused a national outcry, followed by the arrest of the Permanent Secretary of the Defence Committee.

  * Gouin’s government had not only set about reorganizing the intelligence service as the Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionage. It had also put an end to the Gaullist proconsuls from the Liberation, the Commissaires de la République.

  * One could hardly blame Koestler for being pleased at such figures, especially since he had heard that ‘the French Communist Party had orders to buy up every single copy of Le Zéro et l’infini immediately’, so in this way he was being ‘enriched indefinitely from Communist Party funds’.

  * Félix Gouin sued Farge for the allegations in his book Le Pain de la corruption, but lost the case in March 1948, a setback which finished off any lingering political ambitions.

  * Joanovici was a Bessarabian Jew who had come to France in 1925, where he built up a successful scrap-metal business. During Depreux’s investigations, Joanovici was arrested, but then released. He fled to the American zone of Germany in 1947. He was finally put on trial in 1949, condemned to five years in prison and fined 600,000 francs.

  * Aimé and Marguerite Maeght had made their first lucrative deals in the art world by bartering food for paintings during the Occupation (Marguerite’s parents were in the grocery business). In this way, they were able to acquire a number of works by Bonnard and Matisse.

  * Even though Caffery revealed to Bevin and Duff Cooper that France would almost certainly not receive economic aid if Communists were allowed to become ministers again, there is absolutely no evidence to
support the assertion that Ramadier had been blackmailed in the spring by the US government into expelling them from his administration.

  * Wages had risen by 17 per cent while prices had increased on average by 51 per cent.

  * The French were the most successful in their endeavours. Jean Monnet persuaded David Bruce that the government should be allowed to divert Marshall Plan funds into industrial regeneration.

  * Representatives of the New York school had first exhibited in the Galerie du Luxembourg in 1947, but Jackson Pollock’s first show in Paris, organized by the art critic Michel Tapié, took place only in 1951.

  * The newspaper Combat on 12 May, following ‘the night of the barricades’, warned that Paris would become ‘Budapest-sur-Seine’.

  * The final digits of the NARA document reference give the date of receipt by month, day and year: thus dossier no. 851.00/12-448, was received on December 4,1948.

  Index

  Abetz, Otto, 34, 64, 85, 133, 135, 137, 143, 156

  Académie Française, 137, 173, 199, 373

  Acheson, Dean, 228, 276, 285, 356, 357–8, 359

  Action, 360

  Action Française, 137

  Airaud, Arthur, 81

  Alcan, Louise, 146

  Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories (AMGOT), 29, 36

  Alphand, Hervé, 101, 114, 119, 120, 215–16, 245, 288, 289, 322

  and Marshall Plan, 286

  Alsop, Susan Mary see Patten, Mrs William

  Altman, Georges, 334

  Amado, Jorge, 336

  Amery, John, 66

  Amery, Leo, 66

  Amouroux, Henri, 87

  Anouilh, Jean, 140, 179, 184

  Antelme, Robert, 146, 148

  Aragon, Louis, 18, 111, 138, 141, 142–3, 152, 158, 177, 183–4, 221, 332, 373, 376–8, 388

  Argenlieu, Admiral Thierry d’, 54, 238, 279, 307

  Arletty (Léonie Bathiat), 85, 133–4, 136, 365, 380

  Armée Secrète, 25, 28

  Aron, Raymond, 59

  and Les Temps modernes, 178, 248, 323, 329–30, 344

  Artaud, Antonin, 175

  Arzt, Richard, 151

  Association France-URSS, 355, 382

  Astier de la Vigerie, Baron Emmanuel d’, 21, 339

  Astier de la Vigerie, General Baron François, 21

  Astier de la Vigerie, Baron Henri, 21

  Astruc, AlexAndré, 140, 315, 318

  Attlee, Rt. Hon. Clement, 182

  and Marshall Plan, 287

  Audiberti, Jacques, 312

  Auriol, President Vincent, 255, 274, 283, 298, 306, 359

  Auzello, Claude, 50, 51

  Ayen, Duchess d’, 186

  Ayer, A. J., 74, 95, 174

  Baker, Josephine, 61–2, 367

  Baldrige, Letitia, 362

  Baldwin, James, 352

  Balenciaga, Cristóbal, 253

  Ballard, Bettina, 253, 255

  Balmain, Pierre, 257, 308

  Barbie, Klaus, 28, 385

  Barrault, Jean-Louis, 133, 179, 372

  Bath, Daphne, Marchioness of, 111–12

  Battle, Lucius, 357–8

  Baumel, Jacques, 95

  Beach, Sylvia, 34, 59

  Beaumont, Comte Étienne de, 256

  Beaurepaire, André, 252

  Beauvoir, Simone de, 28, 51, 54–5, 60, 61, 73, 74, 125, 126, 130, 141, 173, 174–80, 216, 232, 313–14, 342-3, 344

  on youth, 170

  and VE Day, 197

  a day in the life of, 234–5

  and Koestler, 246–8, 294

  and Capote, 350

  Beckett, Samuel, 152, 178, 329

  Bedell-Smith, General Walter, 126

  Belmondo, Paul, 136, 180

  Benda, Julien, 143, 333

  Benes, President Eduard, 322

  Benoist-Méchin, Jacques, 132, 137, 141, 166, 168

  Bénouville, General Pierre de, 27, 205, 308, 323, 326, 379

  Bérard, Christian, 71, 180, 252, 253, 256, 289, 313, 318

  Béraud, Henri, 138

  Berliet, Marius, 104

  Berlin, Isaiah, 79, 153, 288

  Berlin blockade and airlift, 325–6, 357, 375

  Bernstein, Henri, 308, 364

  Bertaux, Pierre, 95–7

  Berthau, Julien, 39

  Besse, Annie (later Kriegel), 331–2

  Béthouart, General Émile, 29

  Bevin, Rt. Hon. Ernest, 236, 239–40, 242, 243, 275, 288, 357

  and Marshall Plan, 286–7

  Bidault, Georges, 25, 32, 44, 49–50, 54, 122, 154, 204, 206, 211, 273, 275, 282, 296, 308

  as Foreign Minister, 100, 101, 107, 108, 111, 113–14

  visit to Moscow, 116, 119

  and de Gaulle’s resignation, 214

  becomes Prime Minister, 237

  government resigns, 274

  and Marshall Plan, 286–7

  and Germany, 288

  and London Accords, 324

  and new ministry, 372

  Billotte, General Pierre, 44, 46, 223

  Billoux, François, 98, 129, 255, 279–80

  Minister of National Defence, 274–5

  Blaser, Albert (Maxim’s), 75, 85, 364

  Bloomingdale, Donald, 232

  Blum, Léon, 11, 162, 201, 203, 236, 275, 299

  Boegner, Pastor Marc, 47, 51, 78, 84, 86, 87, 121, 142, 157

  and Petain trial, 163

  and Laval trial, 167, 168

  Bogomolov, Sergei, 25, 112, 244, 245, 325

  Bohlen, Charles (‘Chip’), 356, 357, 359

  Boissieu, Captain (later General) Alain de, 47, 388

  marriage to Elisabeth de Gaulle, 214

  Bonbright, James, 228, 301

  Bonnier de la Chapelle, Fernand, 21

  Bonny, Pierre, 155

  Bor-Komorowski, General, 36

  Bost, Jacques-Laurent, 176, 177

  Bouchinet-Serreulles, Claude, 28, 94, 99, 203

  Bouillon, Jo, 62

  Bousquet, Marie-Louise, 256, 372

  Bousquet, René, 13, 385–6

  Boussac, Marcel, 257

  Bradley, General Omar, 41, 44

  Brando, Marlon, 364–5

  Brasillach, Robert, 132–3, 137

  trial and execution, 139–41, 387

  Brassaï, 60, 71

  Breker, Arno, 135–6

  Breton, André, 142, 289–90, 311, 332

  Bridges, Senator, 296

  Bridoux, General Eugène, 65

  Brinon, Fernand de, 65

  Brissac, Duc de, 191

  Brissac, May, Duchesse de, 83, 188

  Broglie, Jacqueline de, 78

  Brouillet, René, 50

  Bruce, Hon. David, 41, 50, 51, 53, 77, 241, 358-60, 363, 372

  and Marshall Plan, 354, 369–70

  becomes US ambassador to France, 356–7

  and Coca-Cola war, 359–60

  Bruce, Evangeline, 72, 356, 358, 372

  Bruce–Lockhart, John, 225

  Bruckberger, Father Raymond-Léopold, 39, 60, 141

  Bruller, Jean (‘Vercors’), 111, 336, 337, 339, 343

  Brunhoff, Michael de, 256

  Buber-Neumann, Margarete, 341

  Buckmaster, Maurice, 24

  Bullitt, Hon. William, 196

  Billow, Claus von, 192

  Burckhardt, Carl, 111

  Bureau Central de Renseignements et d’ Action (BCRA), 24, 28, 233

  Burroughs, William, 380

  Bussières, Amédée, 35, 155

  Butor, Michel, 387

  Byrnes, James, 236, 239, 240, 243, 276

  Cachin, Marcel, 57, 112, 173, 215, 236

  Cadogan, Sir Alexander, 108, 115

  Caffery, Hon. Jefferson, 101–2, 108, 109–10, 112, 113, 122, 160, 163, 203, 211, 226, 227, 234, 241, 275, 278–9, 281, 288, 308, 326

  on black market, 125

  and SHAEF, 127

  and de Gaulle’s resignation, 214–15

  and French right, 223

  and Marshall Plan, 287
, 292n

  and strikes of 1947, 301

  and RPF, 323

  Caffery, Mrs Jefferson (Gertrude), 109–10

  Cagoule (Comité Secret d’ Action Révolutionnaire), 15, 63

  Calas, Raoul, 304–5

  Callender, Harold, 73

  Campan, Zanie de, 177

  Camphin, René, 329

  Camus, Albert, 45, 60, 140, 142, 143, 174, 175, 177, 178, 315, 342–3, 351

  and Les Temps modernes, 178, 344

  with Koestler, 247–8, 293–4

  Camus, Francine, 247–8, 342–3

  Canard enchaîné, Le, Ioon, 139, 160n, 386

  reappearance of, 173–4

  Capa, Robert, 73

  Capitant, René, 273

  Capote, Truman, 350–51

  Carne, Marcel, 175

  Caron, Leslie, 318

  Casanova, Laurent, 200, 237, 331, 334, 336, 337, 360

  Cassou, Jean, 339, 343

  Casteja, Emmeline de, 85

  Castellane, Marquis Boni de, 84, 357

  Castellane, Comte Jean de, 84, 85

  Catroux, General Georges, 15

  Cazalet, Peter, 68

  Cazalis, Anne-Marie, 314, 315–16

  Céline (Louis Ferdinand Destouches), 64, 65, 88, 131, 137, 141, 168, 380–81

  Chaban-Delmas, Jacques, 32–3, 54

  Chack, Paul, 132

  Chambrun, Comtesse Josée de (née Laval), 166

  Chambrun, Comte René de, 166

  Chanel, Gabrielle, 134–5

  Charpentier, Jacques, 43, 86, 159, 162, 167

  Chastenet de Puységur, Comte Armand-Marie de, 137

  Châteaubriant, Alphonse de, 65, 131

  Chautemps, Camille, 8

  Chauvel, Jean, 115, 286, 288

  Chevalier, Maurice, 61, 156

  Choltitz, General Dietrich von, 35, 41, 45, 48, 53, 89

 

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